associated with nonacceptance of heavy drinking (Gary and Gary 1985; Kinney 2000). At historically black colleges and universities, blacks have lower levels of alcohol and other types of drug consump- tion than are observed at colleges and universities with a majority of white students. At all colleges and universities, white students drink signifi- cantly more than do African American students (Kinney 2000). Gordon, who studied a Connecticut city in 1981, examined three Hispanic groups, all new to the United States and all blue collar. In this group, Dominicans drank less after migration. They emphasized suave or sophisticated drinking, and they saw drunkenness as indecent (without respect). Alcoholics were seen as “sick,” perhaps from some tragic experience. Guatemalans drank substantially more after migration: one-third of males were often drunk and binged most week- ends. Being drunk was considered glamorous and sentimentalized—like Humphrey Bogart under the hanging lightbulb, alone in a hotel room. These individuals boasted of hangovers, even when they did not have one. The Guatemalan Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group was alien to Puerto Ricans. Puerto Ricans broke down into middle-class American-style moderate drinkers, depressed and wife-abusing alcoholic welfare recipients, and various sorts of polydrug abusers, including those who entered into the mainland “druggie” youth culture (Gordon 1981). Among Hispanics in general, men were twice as likely to be involved in heavy drinking as both white and African American males (Kinney 2000). In fact, African American students have the lowest lifetime, annual, and 30-day prevalence rates for alcohol use; they also tend to have the lowest rates for daily drinking (NIDA 1999). Finally, a number of conclusive studies that examine the relation- ship between ethnic identity and the extent of illicit drug use and abuse indicate that illicit drug abuse is more likely to occur in second-generation ethnics (children of parents who immigrated to the United States) with less illicit drug use in suc- cessive ethnic generations beyond the second gen- eration (Cheung 1993; Hjern 2016; Svensson and Hagquist 2009). Similar patterns of illicit drug use 262 Chapter 8 ❚ ALCOHOL: BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS
and abuse are also found in minority groups that are socially and economically disadvantaged in the United States (Gans 1992; Vaillant 1966). Even when looking at physiological responses to alcohol, ethnicity appears to matter. The long-term effects of alcohol dependence are reported to cause more damage to the immune systems of African Americans than other ethnic groups. The greater sensitivity to alcohol and its damaging effects puts this group at an increased risk for infection and, in many cases, at a greater likelihood of death (Research Group News Release 2016).
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- Spring '19
- Alcoholic beverage, Drinking culture