In some cities this space covers large areas and constitutes real districts 12

In some cities this space covers large areas and

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residential, industrial and services purpose. In some cities, this space covers large areas and constitutes real districts. 1.2 Vulnerability of the underground space The underground space suffers from vulnerability to urban hazards such as fire, flood and accidents. Safety constitutes the great challenge of this space. Indeed, an incident in the underground space could be catastrophic and lead to huge economic and social damages. Safety in the underground space is more critical than that in the ground surface, because of access restriction. Accidents could concern structural instability, water infiltration, fire, electrical outage and air contamination, etc. An incident such as flood or fire could lead very quickly to serious damages of underground system equipment. 1.3 Fire hazard… Fire is one of the most serious disaster in the underground space. Almost one-third of accidents in the urban underground space are associated with fire hazard. In 1999, China suffered from 4059 fire accidents in the urban underground space, which caused around
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2. Smart technology 2.1 Smart Solution The smart technology could be used to establish an integrated solution for the risk management of the underground space. Figure 1 shows the architecture of this solution. It
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  • Spring '14
  • KevinP.Moenkhaus

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