Important paleoclimatic indicators include glacial deposits, coal, dunes, evaporates, redbeds, laterites, bauxites, and fossils. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns are inferred from plate tectonic reconstructions, oxygen isotopes, and marine carbonates. Six major periods of continental glaciations occurred at 2.8, 2.3 b.y.a., 800 – 900, 450. 350- 250 , and 1.7-0 m.y.a The Precambrian, Early Paleozoic, Late Mesozoic, and Early Cenozoic were times of widespread warm climates. Sample Questions: The main line of evidence used to support the Big Bang theory is the ____ of stars: mutation; (b) magnetic stripes; (c) relativity theory; (d) red shift; (e) blue shift Answer: d. > . The expanding universe theory, based on the above, was proposed by: (a) Albert Einstein; (b) Carl Hubble; (c) Tycho Brahe; (d) Carl Sagan; (e) Charles Darwin. Answer: b. > The current theory for the origin of the solar system is called the: (a) nebulous theory; (b) solar nebula theory; (c) evolutionary theory; (d) encounter theory; (e) planetesimal theory. > Which of these is a NOT a terrestrial planet? (a) Earth; (b) Saturn; (c) Mars; (d) Mercury; (e) Venus. Answer: b. > Which of these planets besides Earth probably has plate tectonics? (a) Mars; (b) Jupiter; (c) Venus; (d) the Moon; (e) NONE of these. Answer: e. > The density-driven separation of Earth into crust, mantle, and core is called: (a) fractional crystallization; (b) magma mixing; (c) partial melting; (d) differentiation; (e) lithification. Answer: d. References: Condie, Kent C., and Sloan, Robert E. 1998. Origin and Evolution of Earth: Principles of Historical Geology. 1 st . ed., Ch. 3. Origin of the Solar System, p. 62-95; Ch. 4, Evolution of Earth’s Crust p. 96-116. Ch. 5, Earth’s Atmosphere, Oceans, and Climates , p. 117- 140. . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-491820-7. Wicander, Reed, and Moore, James S. 2013. Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. 7 th ed., Ch. 1. The Dynamic and Evolving Earth. p. 4-12; Ch. 8, Precambrian and Life Hitory, The Hadean and Archean Eon , p. 151-161. Belmont, California. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. ISBN 13: 978-1-111-98729-9; ISBN 10: 1- 111-98729-7. Wicander, Reed, and Moore James S. 2000. Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time: 3 rd ed., Ch. 7, A History of the Universe, Solar System, and Planets162- 187 ,. Pacific Gove, California. Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning. ISBN 0 534-573348-7.