o 5 lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula) Frontal and Parietal Lobes o Frontal- Personality, voluntary motor of skeletal muscles, planning o Parietal- understanding speech and formulating words. o Separated by the central sulcus. o Precentral Gyrus - in frontal lobe and responsible for motor control. (motor neurons)
PCB STUDY GUIDE 12 o Postcentral Gyrus- in the parietal lobe and responsible for somatesthetic sensation. Temporal, Occipital, and Insula Lobes o Temporal- hearing o Occipital- vision o Insula Lobe- memory and integration of sensory information (pain) Thalamus - relay center Hypothalamus- maintains homeostasis (hunger, body temp, emotions, hormones) Epithalamus - Contains choroid plexus and the pineal gland (secretes hormones) Left and Right hemisphere o Right & left cerebral hemisphere = connected and communicate by corpus callosum o Left - specialized for language and analytical ability o Right - specialized for spatial comprehension Brocas area- producing language (broca's aphasia- understands but can’t answer back properly) Wernicke’s - Understanding of words (Wernicke’s aphasia- can’t understand, so says things that are unrelated to what’s being asked) Week 4 after conception Week 5 after conception White matter- Myelination of axon Grey matter- cell bodies Spinal Cord Tracts Ascending tracts
PCB STUDY GUIDE 13 o carry sensory information from receptors in the skin, muscles, joints, and organs. Descending Tracts o Carry motor impulses PNS Nerves and Ganglia Somatic Reflex- fast, involuntary responses that occur when action potentials pass through a somatic reflex arc. Types of Reflex Arcs Somatic Reflex- effectors are skeletal muscles Autonomic Reflex - effectors are smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, or glands. Autonomic Nervous System Somatic motor neurons o Have cell bodies in the spinal cord and 1 neuron traveling from spinal cord to effector. Autonomic motor neurons (2 neurons in PNS) o First has cell bodies in the brain and spinal cord and synapses in an autonomic ganglion o Second has cell bodies in ganglion and synapses on the effector Sympathetic Division o Preganglionic neurons (thoracolumbar column) synapse in sympathetic ganglia that run parallel to the spinal cord. Functions = “fight or flight” release of Norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons and the secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. Parasympathetic Division o Preganglionic neurons - synapse in ganglia located near or in effector organs (terminal ganglia) Functions = “rest and digest” release of ACh from postganglionic neurons Cholinergic Receptors
PCB STUDY GUIDE 14 o Nicotinic found in autonomic ganglia Stimulated by ACh o Muscarinic Found in visceral organs Stimulatory or inhibitory Circulatory System Composed of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems o Cardiovascular system composed of the heart and blood vessels Functions include transportation (of respiratory gases, nutrients (transported by
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- Fall '08