," in which they transmitted radio messages in their native languages (incomprehensible to the Axis powers). VI. Holding the Home Front America was not as ill-affected by the war as the rest of the world. The war substantially helped the American economy, and by the end of the war, the nation's GNP and citizens' disposable incomes had significantly risen. The Federal government became much more involved in individual citizens' lives during WWII, and this set the stage for the future role of government. The national debt rose from $49 billion to $259 billion from 1941-1945. Most of the war costs were borrowed. VII. The Rising Sun in the Pacific Simultaneously with the assault on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched attacks on various Far Eastern strongholds, including the American outposts of Guam , Wake , and the Philippines. In the Philippines , American forces, led by General MacArthur , held out against the invading Japanese force for 5 months. The America troops eventually surrendered on April 9, 1942 . They were treated with vicious cruelty in the 80-mile Bataan Death March to prisoner-of-war camps.
The island fortress of Corregidor held out until it surrendered on May 6, 1942 , giving the Japanese complete control of the Philippines. VIII. Japan's High Tide at Midway In May 1942 , a crucial naval battle was fought in the Coral Sea between an American carrier task force, with Australian support, and a Japanese carrier task force. Although it suffered losses, the U.S. stopped the Japanese advancement. This was the first battle in which all the fighting was done by carrier-based aircraft. On June 3-6 , 1942 , a naval battle was fought near Midway . If the Japanese took Midway, they would be able to directly launch attacks against Pearl Harbor. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz directed a smaller carrier force, under Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, against the powerful invading Japanese fleet. The Japanese retreated after losing 4 carriers. Midway was a turning point in the Pacific war. Combined with the Battle of Coral Sea, the U.S. success at Midway halted the Japanese. IX. American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo From August 1942 to February 1943, Americans fought for control of Guadalcanal Island in an attempt to protect the shipping lanes from America to Australia through the Southwest Pacific. The Japanese troops evacuated Guadalcanal in February 1943 . The casualty ratio was more than 10:1 (Japanese:American). The U.S. Navy " leapfrogged " several Japanese-held islands in the Pacific. Japanese soldiers were known to fight until every last man was dead. So, rather than fighting for every island, the strategy was to take nearby islands and then lay siege to the surrounded islands. Admiral Chester Nimitz successfully coordinated naval, air, and ground assaults in the Pacific. Saipan Island , Tinian Island , and the major islands of the Marianas fell to U.S. attackers in July and August 1944. From the Marianas, the United States' new B-29 superbombers were able to carryout round-
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