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, then the patient is put under group 2 where Y=1. For the points with ai=0, the class memberships are intermediate. This method aims to obtain an optimal wsjwhere the resulting classifications will have a maximum agreement with the outcomes, meaning there is the least misclassification error. Subliminally, the best weights need to allow two factors.First, the sign of aito is similar to Yi, so that the classification is correct. Secondly, the magnitude of aimust be far away from 0 to minimize the vagueness of classification. To achieve these, wjsthat cause minimum loss of quadratic function is selected. Besides, if the assumption is made that the newpatients are from the same population, the resulting wjscan use these patients' traits in classifying them (Figure 9). 31
Figure 9: SVM illustration2.5.3 Natural Language Processing (NLP)NLP extract vital information from a narrative text to aid clinical decision-making. There are two main components in the NLP pipeline, text processing, and classification (Jurafsky and Martin, 2000, 10, Kruschwitz, 1999, 35). According to historical databases, NLP uses text processing to detect disease-relevant keywords from the narrative text. After that, a subset of the keywords is used, and their effect on the classification of abnormal and normal cases is examined. These validated keywords enter and buffer the structured data that ropes decision-making by the physician (Wilensky, 2000, 79). The NLP pipeline assists clinical decision making by monitoring adverse events, generating alerts on treatment arrangements, and others. 32
2.6 Chatbots and AutismThe widespread use of personal computerized systems and the need for conversational agents have likewise increased where people wish to converse with the machine they would have with real people. The concept is called Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). It allows humans to express themselves in either textual or auditory form. These qualities have existed in chatbots, which were created for the sole purpose of HCI (Abu Shawar and Atwell, 2005a, 23, Atwell, 1996, 45). Chatbots incorporate computational algorithms and integrate a language model in mimicking human conversations. Building chatbots for this subset of the population assists them in communication and reduces the disparities existing between them and the non-autistic adults. In the subsequent paragraphs of this section, we discuss some of the existent chatbots employed in the current study. 2.6.1 EDDIThe Enhanced Dialogue Driven Intelligence (EDDI) is an opensource platform used for developing chatbot solutions. Some of the features the platform offers are: -·An in-memory Natural Language Processing principle. The feature increases the efficiency of the chatbots built on this platform, since the processing does not need to be fetched from storage, thusreducing the time constraints.