A curious upshot multiple explanations sunset planets

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A curious upshot: multiple explanations - Sunset - Planets etc 9.1 Writing the inventions of writing – technological determinism - Writing has been invented at least 4 separate times - Japan (2232 characters) - Ancient Egypt (743 characters) - Modern Egypt (28 letter plus or minus 18 alternate letter forms) - Afghanistan (comparable to mod. Egypt) - Laos (40 letters) Evolution from Mesopotamia - The evolution of cuneiform 9.2 technology 01 Before c. 8000 BCE: Paleolithic (old stone) age - Fire - Language - Hunting techniques and tools - Dog domesticated 8000-3500 BCE: Neolithic (New stone) Age - Agriculture and its tools; plough, sickle - Mortar and pestle - Axe - Pottery - The wheel shows up in Mesopotamia in the fourth mil. - Fabrics: leather working, felting, spinning, weaving, dyeing - Some copper tools and weapons - Domestication of animals (sheep, goat, pig, cow, chicken, horse) 3500-2500 or 1500 depends on who you believe Bronze age - Tin gets added to copper to produce bronze weapons, armous and tools - Potters wheel (c. 3000) - Writing, papyrus - Glass (initially beads, later vessels) - Shaduf - Alcohol (beer before wine) - Food preservation: salting, drying, smoking - Food preparation: rotary quern - Water supply and drainage for cities - Complex irrigation systems - Street paving - Paddle, oar, square sail - Clepsydra - Brick
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1500 BCE – Iron Age - Iron tools in use from 2500, but Iron weapons from 1500 after hardening by repeated heating (coal) and hammering - Parchment Irrigation or mining: bucket chain pump, drum pump Variation: lets you pump to twice the height - Cleats for feet Aqueduct: is a system that could involve tunnels, bridges, settling tanks, distribution tanks, siphons, pipes above or underground Lyon: header tanks and beginning of siphon - Use of water towers to reduce pressure The castellum: urban distribution 10.1 Antikythera New data - Xray tomography in 1990s - Placement of fragments Front Face - Egyptian calendar - Zodiacal parapegma - Lunar phases - Planetary phenomena 11.1 Pneumatics The investigation of the properties of atmospheric air having been deemed worthy of close attention by the ancient philosophers and mechanists, the former deducing them theoretically, the latter from the action of sensible bodies, we also have thought proper to arrange in order what has been handed down by former writers, and add thereto our own discoveries: a task from which much advantage will result to those who shall hereafter devote themselves to the study of mathematics By the union of air, earth, fire and water, the concurrence of three or four elementary principles, various combinations are effected, some of which supply the most pressing wants of human life, while others astound and amaze The vacccum - Some assert that there is not vaccum; others that while no continuous vacuum is exhibited in nature, it is to be found distributed in minute portions through air, water fire and all other substances - True from sensible phenomena, we adopt - Vessels which seem to most men empty are not empty, as they supposed but full of air - The air is composed of particles minute and light and for the most part invisible
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