Real butter making in Mongolia comes from the yak Crisco mostly saturated fat

Real butter making in mongolia comes from the yak

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Real butter-making in Mongolia comes from the yak Crisco: mostly saturated fat and 20% water o Margarine A variety of fats depending on the product Often plant fats (canola oil) Ranging in degree of water from 20 to 60% Invented in France in the 1869 (Napoleon the III) for the army and lower classes WWII use of margarine Becel margarine light 60% water Gum is used to give consistency Regular margarine Much less water (16%) Soya oil mostly Regular becel 16% water Mostly canola and sunflower oil Light margarine 60% water Canola oil mostly Smart Beat o Trans fat free o Fat: 2g compared to 11g in butter and margarine o No saturated o No cholesterol o There is some trans fatty acids in margarine (more than butter due to hydrogenation) o There is a little bit of trans fat in butter that is naturally occurring o Do not freeze margarine mostly water leads to separation when frozen Hydrogenation o CIS double bond: hydrogens on the same side. No rotation can take place around that bond o TRANS double bond: hydrogens on the opposite side. No rotation. o To prepare a margarine it is usually necessary to hydrogenate many of the double bonds to single bonds consistency
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o Adding H2 to many of the double bonds making a higher percentage of saturated fat at a level to give a spreadable material o During the hydrogenation process trans double bonds may be created o Catalyst: palladium (Pd) or platinum (Pt) o Double bond associate with surface of catalyst o Double-bond becomes single-bond o One by one the process continues o Trans double bond impurity that happens in the process Not healthy Naturally occurring trans fat do not appear to increase cholesterol levels Saturated fat in meat: o Filet mignon has less fat in it (tender) o More expensive o Too much saturated fat building cholesterol in arteries atherosclerosis heart disease Saturated fats contribute to the increase in cholesterol in the body 80% of the cholesterol in the body is made by our body The idea of cholesterol laden food is less a issue than we might think The issue over fat is not clear o Three independent research groups from 1987 – 1992 worked on computer models on life expectancy if saturated fat was reduced from the usual 30% to 10% Harvard Medical School (1987) 3 dahs to 3 months if saturated fat is reduced UCSF in 1998 showed 3-4 months increased lifetime McGill study showed the same o Theses studies show that cutting fat does not improve dramatically life expectancy A study in 2010 replaced saturated fats by unsaturated fat and showed improvement in terms of cardiac disease, but some studies do not show that (others claim that more research should be done) Studies show that it is not good to replace these fats with carbs because it worsens obesity.
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