100%(3)3 out of 3 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 6 - 9 out of 12 pages.
Lack of postmenopausal weight gainoClinical Manifestation: Small, painless lump in breast, palpable lymph nodes (axilla, dimpled skin, nipple), skin retention, nipple discharge, redden skin, ulcers, bone pain-Involve uterus, cervix, ovaries, vagina (rare), START in the ductal epitheliumFibrocystic Breast Disease: non- proliferative breast lesions, not associated w/ cancer, simple breast cysts, papillary apocrine changes, mild hyperplasia-Chronic cystic mastitis, mammary dysplasia-Simple cystsare the most common, occur in women in their 40, 50, 60’s, near skin surface (feel squishy), deeply embedded (hard feeling)oCaused by: hormonal changes, genetics, age, parity, nipple discharge, chronic inflammation and palpable firmness, Benign Breast Disease: Causes of Breast Cancer: each woman has different genetic profile (genetic heterogenicity) -Phenotypic Plasticity: distinctive phenotype called EMT (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition)-Tumor
Dormancy: microscopic and occult cancerous lesions that become latent or dormant in various stages of cancer1.Non- proliferative breast lesions: breast cysts, papillary apocrine change, mild hyperplasia(enlarge organ/tissue caused by an increase in reproduction of cell, it is initial stage of cancer2.Proliferative breast disease: w/o atypia: ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma’s, sclerosing adenosis, radial scar, fibroadenoma… w/ atypia: ADH and ALH3.Atypical (atypia) hyperplasia Hormonal Risk Factors: -Early first pregnancy-Removal of ovaries and pituitary gland-Increased risk of early menarche, late menopause and nulliparity-Relationship of fat, free estrogen levels, estrogen metabolism-Hormone dependent development and mammary gland structure-Antihormone therapy for treatment/prevention of breast cancer-HRT or MHT: hormone-replacement therapy and menopausal hormone therapy -Dysplasia: the healthy cells undergo an abnormal change Environmental Factors: -Radiation: mutagen, x-rays, CT scans, fluoroscopy, radiological procedures, MRI (secondary lung malignancy) -Diet: alcohol, overweight, weight gain after menopause, fats, Mediterranean diet, carbohydrates, iodine deficiency -Obesity: leptin and adiponectin, excess adipose tissue, cytokines, IGF, immune functions -Environmental Chemicals: synthetic chemicals, EDC’s plasticizer bisphenoloXenoestrogens: mimic actions of estrogen, pesticide, fuels, plastics, detergents, drugs, PCB’s, DDT, tobacco smoke, dioxins, metals, parabens, food additives -Physical Activity: regular physical activity can reduce risk of breast cancer, sedentary lifestyle, increased insulin resistance, inflammation, decreased immune function Screening for Breast Cancer:Harms of Screening: 1.Abnormal diagnosis: false positives causing anxiety and morbidity2.Overdiagnosis: oDCIS: noninvasive, confined to duct, increased risk for diagnosis of breast cancer-Screen early for breast cancer (annually) oDepends on women’s age, breast density, time interval of screening exams Chapter 34: Alterations of the Male System Table 34-1, pg. 856-857