# Functions functions can be categorized as follows

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first and else clauses. FUNCTIONS Functions can be categorized as follows. Single row functions Group functions SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS Single row functions can be categorized into five. These will be applied for each row and produces individual output for each row. 28

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Numeric functions String functions Date functions Miscellaneous functions Conversion functions NUMERIC FUNCTIONS Abs Sign Sqrt Mod Nvl Power Exp Ln Log Ceil Floor Round Trunk Bitand Greatest Least Coalesce a) ABS Absolute value is the measure of the magnitude of value. Absolute value is always a positive number. Syntax: abs ( value ) Ex: SQL> select abs(5), abs(-5), abs(0), abs(null) from dual; ABS(5) ABS(-5) ABS(0) ABS(NULL) ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------- 29
5 -5 0 b) SIGN Sign gives the sign of a value. Syntax: sign ( value ) Ex: SQL> select sign(5), sign(-5), sign(0), sign(null) from dual; SIGN(5) SIGN(-5) SIGN(0) SIGN(NULL) ---------- ---------- ---------- -------------- 1 -1 0 c) SQRT This will give the square root of the given value. Syntax: sqrt ( value ) -- here value must be positive. Ex: SQL> select sqrt(4), sqrt(0), sqrt(null), sqrt(1) from dual; SQRT(4) SQRT(0) SQRT(NULL) SQRT(1) ---------- ---------- --------------- ---------- 2 0 1 d) MOD This will give the remainder. Syntax: mod ( value, divisor ) Ex: SQL> select mod(7,4), mod(1,5), mod(null,null), mod(0,0), mod(-7,4) from dual; 30

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MOD(7,4) MOD(1,5) MOD(NULL,NULL) MOD(0,0) MOD(-7,4) ------------ ---------- --------------------- ----------- ------------- 3 1 0 -3 e) NVL This will substitutes the specified value in the place of null values. Syntax: nvl ( null_col, replacement_value ) Ex: SQL> select * from student; -- here for 3 rd row marks value is null NO NAME MARKS --- ------- --------- 1 a 100 2 b 200 3 c SQL> select no, name, nvl(marks,300) from student; NO NAME NVL(MARKS,300) --- ------- --------------------- 1 a 100 2 b 200 3 c 300 SQL> select nvl(1,2), nvl(2,3), nvl(4,3), nvl(5,4) from dual; NVL(1,2) NVL(2,3) NVL(4,3) NVL(5,4) ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 1 2 4 5 SQL> select nvl(0,0), nvl(1,1), nvl(null,null), nvl(4,4) from dual; NVL(0,0) NVL(1,1) NVL(null,null) NVL(4,4) 31
---------- ---------- ----------------- ---------- 0 1 4 f) POWER Power is the ability to raise a value to a given exponent. Syntax: power ( value, exponent ) Ex: SQL> select power(2,5), power(0,0), power(1,1), power(null,null), power(2,-5) from dual; POWER(2,5) POWER(0,0) POWER(1,1) POWER(NULL,NULL) POWER(2,-5) -------------- -------------- ----- --------- ----------------------- --------------- 32 1 1 .03125 g) EXP This will raise e value to the give power. Syntax: exp ( value ) Ex: SQL> select exp(1), exp(2), exp(0), exp(null), exp(-2) from dual; EXP(1) EXP(2) EXP(0) EXP(NULL) EXP(-2) -------- --------- -------- ------------- ---------- 2.71828183 7.3890561 1 .135335283 h) LN This is based on natural or base e logarithm. Syntax: ln ( value ) -- here value must be greater than zero which is positive only. Ex: 32

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SQL> select ln(1), ln(2), ln(null) from dual; LN(1) LN(2) LN(NULL) ------- ------- ------------ 0 .693147181 Ln and Exp are reciprocal to each other. EXP (3) = 20.0855369 LN (20.0855369) = 3 i) LOG This is based on 10 based logarithm. Syntax: log (10, value ) -- here value must be greater than zero which is positive only. Ex: SQL> select log(10,100), log(10,2), log(10,1), log(10,null) from dual; LOG(10,100) LOG(10,2) LOG(10,1) LOG(10,NULL) --------------- ----------- ------------ ----------------- 2 .301029996 0 LN (value) = LOG ( EXP (1), value) SQL> select ln(3), log(exp(1),3) from dual; LN(3) LOG(EXP(1),3) ------- ----------------- 1.09861229 1.09861229 j) CEIL This will produce a whole number that is greater than or equal to the specified value.
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