Gardner believes that schools should foster all different types of intelligence, not just traditional ling + math intelligences. Teacher needs to understand each student’s best type of intelligence + instruct in way that engages as many types of intelligence as possible Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence 1999 Skillful use of one’s abilities to achieve personal goals Analytic Ability : Analyzing problems + generating different solutions Creative Ability: Dealing adaptively w novel situations + problems Practical Ability : Knowing what solution/plan will actually work Summary Psychometric : Intelligence = hierarchy of general + specific skills Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences : 9 distinct intelligences exist: ling, logical-math, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic + existential Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence : Use of analytic, creative + practical abilities to pursue personal goals 8.2 Measuring Intelligence Binet + Development of Intelligence Testing Binet created first intelligence test to identify students who would have difficulty in school. Terman created Stanford-Binet, which introduced Intelligence quotient (IQ). WISC-IV provides IQ based on verbal + performance subtests. Infant tests, Bayley Scales,
typically assess mental + motor development. Scores on infants intelligence test do not predict adults IQ scores but infant habituation predicts childhood IQ + preschool IQ scores predict adult IQ Binet + Simon introduced concept of mental age (MA) which referred to difficulty of problems children could solve correctly. Child who solved problems that average 7 yr could pass would have MA of 7 Bright child would have MA of older child. Dull child would have MA of younger child To clarify issue of what test results meant about intellectual ability, Terman described performances as IQ: ratio of mental age to chronological age (CA) multiplied by 100 (IQ=MA/CA X 100) Child of perfectly average will have IQ of 100 IQ no longer computed by MA/CA formula instead determined by comparing test performance to others their age Expert argued IQ most important predictor of individual's ultimate position wi American society WISC-IV includes subtest for both verbal + performance skills, as well as perceptual reasoning, working memory + processing speed Individual testing optimizes motivation + attention of child + provides opportunity for sensitive examiner to assess factors that might influence test performance May notice whether child relaxed/anxious + unable to do best Psychologists prefer individualized tests of intelligence over group tests + use Bayley Scales of Infant Development designed for 1-42 mos, doesn’t predict later IQ scores 5 Scales: Cog, lang, motor, soc emotional + adaptive behaviour Assess infant's control of body, coordination + ability to manipulate objects Smart babies become smart elementary school students who should become smart adults Infants test measure diff abilities than tests administered to children + adolescents.
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- Fall '13
- Intelligence quotient, IQ scores, info processing, cog development