Humanistic psychological theory people are generally

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Humanistic Psychological Theory People are generally good but are influenced by society to behave badly (contrary to Freud who states that people are inherently bad) It is inferred that people choose crime when they cannot satisfy these needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1968) Physiology (food, water, and procreational sex) Safety (security, stability, free of fear, anxiety, and chaos etc.) Belongingness and love (friendship, affection, and acceptance) Esteem (self-esteem and the esteem of others) Self-actualization (being true to one’s nature, becoming everything that one is capable of becoming) Halleck (1967) Crime is a way of adapting Adaptation needed when oppression causes helplessness Two types of oppression: Objective: Social oppression: example, racial discrimination, sexism, and weight discrimination Two-person interactive: example, a parent’s restrictions on a child’s behavior that is seen as unfair by the child Subjective: Oppression from within: example, guilt Projected or misunderstood oppression: example, feeling oppressed when actually not oppressed Halleck (1967): Crime has several psychological advantages Crime gives more of a wanted status than mental illness Crime is pleasurable or gratifies needs of the person Deviant behavior provides non-oppressive relations with other deviants Crime is condemned but also glamorized Crime relieves oppression and stress Crime offers excitement Crime frees the offender—from oppression of others
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Personality Theory Places focus on emotional conflict and personality deviation Look at the relationship between personality disorders and crime Thinking Errors When misused the lead to criminal behavior Lying Confusion Fronting Mr. Goodguy Secretiveness Lack of empathy Keeping score Hot Shot or Cockiness Blaming Redefining Minimizing Akers & Sellers (2009): personality inventories has not been able to produce any findings to support personality as a cause of criminal behavior Behavior Theory Skinner Unconscious behavior is not important, it’s the behavior that can be observed that is important—again not the unconscious Behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned Removing, changing, and replacing reward gained from deviant behavior Learning Theory Behavior is learned
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