partner is saying. You also need to ensure that what you're saying is appropriate to your audience. This is both in terms of appropriate to your partner's prior knowledge of what you share with them, but also socially appropriate. So talking to your professor versus talking to a friend. And you must all do all of this while you're monitoring multiple dynamically changing visual and auditory cues such as your partner's speech, but also other things such as facial expression The movement of their lips, their posture, things like that. It's fascinating that all of these processes occur simultaneously in collaborationwith your partner to ensure effective communication. That these complex simultaneous conversational processes motivate this ultimate question, why this conversation feels so easy. We'll talk later in the second half of this lecture about some cognitive mechanisms that we have that might help us manage this complexity. But before we even get there, let's talk about the structure of conversation. One thing toknow is although it might not seem like it when we're engaging in conversation, and we're, you know, adjusting and modifying our conversations with our partners all the time. The fact is that conversations actually always possess structure. For example, conversations will always have openings and closings,we will use certain language or certain gestures to indicate that we wish to either start a conversation orend the conversation. So you might go up to a friend and say hello. Another inherent aspect of conversation is that it's composed of turn taking behavior, where we alternate our conversate our contributions with our partner, going back and forth and communication, so one person speaks and the other person speak and you kind of go back and forth. We also unknowingly negotiate the topics of the conversation, and we dynamically change and modify them based on what our partner and what we want to talk about. In other words, we coordinate the initiation so it does or in terms of the start and the end of topics during that interactions. So what I'm getting at here is that conversations are actually joint activities where people have to coordinate with each other, and the structure of conversation emerges from our effort to coordinate with our partners. conversations, always include goals, that'll switch back and forth. Between the two people talking, which could include mutually recognized goals and sub goals, like what you want to talk about what you want to discuss the information you might want to gain from somebody's conversation, like any joint activities actually have boundaries, there's beginnings andthere's ends, there's transitions that didn't occur until both people agree to have those transitions from one topic to the next, for example, there's lots of coordination going on when we're having a conversation with another person. So how do we manage the coordination of such joint activity? Why do we manage a coordination with a partner and thus organize our conversation is by using what is 119Transcribed by
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- Winter '08