Foreign policy failures also damaged khru shchevs

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Foreign policy failures also damaged Khru- shchev's reputation among his colleagues. His rash plan to place missiles in Cuba was the final straw. While he was away on vacation in 1964, a special meeting of the Soviet leaders voted him out of office (because of "deteriorating health") and forced him into retirement. Explaining Why did the Soviet leaders vote Khrushchev out of power? Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain At the end of World War II, Soviet military forces occupied all of Eastern Europe and the Balkans (except for Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia). All of the occupied states came under Soviet control. Communist Patterns of Control The timetable of the Soviet takeover varied from country to country. Between 1945 and 1947, Soviet-controlled Commu- nist governments became firmly entrenched in East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary. In Czechoslovakia, where there was a strong tradi- tion of democracy and a multi-party system, the Soviets did not seize control of the government until 1948. At that time they dissolved all but the Commu- nist Party. Albania and Yugoslavia were exceptions to this pattern of Soviet dominance. During the war, both countries had had strong Communist movements that resisted the Nazis. After the war, local Commu- nist parties took control. Communists in Albania set up a Stalinist-type regime that grew more and more independent of the Soviet Union. In Yugoslavia, Josip Broz, known as Tito, had been the leader of the Communist resistance move- ment. After the war, he moved toward the creation of an independent Communist state in Yugoslavia. Stalin hoped to take control of Yugoslavia, just as he had done in other Eastern European countries. Tito, however, refused to give in to Stalin's demands. He gained the support of the people by portraying the struggle as one of Yugoslav national freedom. Tito ruled Yugoslavia until his death in 1980. Although Yugoslavia had a Communist government, it was not a Soviet satellite state. Between 1948 and Stalin's death in 1953, the East- ern European satellite states, directed by the Soviet Union, followed Stalin's example. They instituted Soviet-type five-year plans with emphasis on heavy industry rather than consumer goods. They began to collectivize agriculture. They eliminated all noncom- munist parties and set up the institutions of repres- sion—secret police and military forces. Revolts Against Communism Communism did not develop deep roots among the peoples of Eastern Europe. Moreover, the Soviets exploited Eastern Europe economically for their own benefit and made living conditions harsh for most people. After Stalin's death, many Eastern European states began to pursue a new course. In the late 1950s and 1960s, however, the Soviet Union made it clear— especially in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia — that it would not allow its Eastern European satel- lites to become inde- pendent of Soviet control.

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