They sat there all day long quietly reading and taking notes from school books. The next day they went back again and the same thing happened. By the end of the week more students joined them and by the week after that, white students joined. This is called civil disobedience. This unjust law had to be changed and sit-ins happened at train stations, bus stations, and restaurants. It happened everywhere that blacks couldn’t sit with everyone else. The protesters would get food poured on them and called names while quietly sitting in seats protesting that establishments segregation laws. March on Washington Aug 1963 following Birmingham, the next event was organized by SCLC and SNEC in Washington. It was a march for jobs and freedom. Marching the nation’s capital was a big deal. 200,000 people gathered to march from Washington Memorial to the Lincoln Memorial. This is where MLK did his “I have a dream” speech. This was a peaceful, respectful and joyful protest demanding change. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Noting that the JFK was assonated in Nov 1963, so at that time LBJ became president. The Civil Rights bill that JFK introduced in the spring is still sitting in Congress and wouldn’t have seen the light of day, if it wasn’t for LBJ. He may not have been able to support the Civil Rights legislation as a senator, but as president he works to get the Civil Rights bill passed. He gets this legislation passed and signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in June. This outlawed discrimination in all public accommodations. This establishes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to ensure that there wasn’t discrimination in the workplace, dealing with the hiring and firing of employees. Freedom Summer – The 1964 summer that was organized by SNEC. Freedom Summer was supposed to be a summer of black voter registration around MS. They hoped for 1000 college volunteers, but 3000 showed up. It was hoped that this would be peaceful, but there was opposition from those who don’t want blacks to vote. Voting Rights Acts of 1965 – There is legislation in Congress for a Voting Rights Act. This would eliminate pole taxes, literacy test and grandfather clauses. This would work to guarantee that blacks could vote. MLK organization working with SNEC organized a march to bring attention to the Voting Rights Act. They
organized a march from Selma AL to Montgomery AL, to bring attention to the Voting Rights Act. As the march began in Salma they were met by police brutality with the attempt to break the march up. Shortly after the march the Civil Rights Act was passed in Congress. This causes the movement to change from ending segregation in the South to ending the war in Vietnam and ending poverty. 3 reasons the Civil Rights movement succeeded - 1. The leadership of MLK . He appeals across racial lines and demographic lines. He promoted a non-violent movement and was able to encourage blacks and white to participate in the movement. 2. LBJ – He was the president who signed and pushed the Civil Rights Act passed.
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