Eventually anaerobic metabolism will stop and the cell will die. Free Radical and Reactive Oxygen Species have an unpaired electron in its outer shell unstable and highly reactive molecule ex Alzheimer’s PRK Ethanol metabolized to acetaldehyde in the cytoplasm of the cell. Liver and nutrition disorder seen mainly in the liver and stomach and are thought to be due to the generation of free radicals.
3 b. Analyze the differences between the manifestations of oncosis, fatty infiltration, dystrophic calcification, metastatic calcification, urate accumulation and describe the implications for clinical practice. Cellular Injury Manifestation Cellular Effects Clinical Implications Oncosis Cellular swelling Hypoxic injury Fatty infiltration Accumulation of lipids (most commonly in the liver) ETOH, Fatty diet Dystrophic Calcification Accumulation of calcium in injured and dead tissue Tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, and heart valve disease Metastatic Calcification Mineral deposit in undamaged tissue due to hypercalcification Hyperthyroidism, toxic levels of vitamin D , addisons disease, hyperparathyroidism. Urate accumulation Deposition of urate in tissues, cell injury, and inflammation Acute arthritis, nephritis, chronic gouty arthritis c. Evaluate the process of necrosis, infarct, and apoptosis and describe the implications for clinical practice. Cell Death Cellular Effect Clinical Implications Necrosis Rapid loss of the plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the lack of typical features of apoptosis Coagulative necrosis happens in the kidney, heart, adrenal glands. Liquefactive necrosis happens in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Also caused by bacterial infections resulting in pus. Caseous necrosis occurs in lung tissue (combination of Coag & Liqu) Fat necrosis occurs in breast, pancreas, and abd structures. Caused by dissolution by lipases Gangrenous necrosis death of tissue due to hypoxia and subsequent bacterial invasion Infarct An area of necrosis from sudden insufficiency of arterial blood flow MI Apoptosis Self-destruction/programmed cell death Death by apoptosis causes loss of cells by -sever cell injury (injuried cell exceeds repaired cell -accumulation of misfolded proteins create mutations or free radicals which cause endoplasmic reticulum stree -infection -obstruction in tissue ducts
4 d. Explain the five types of necrosis (coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, gangrenous). Type of Necrosis Explanation Coagulative Coagulative necrosis: injury that occurs in the kidneys, heart, adrenal glands, and 2/2 hypoxia Liquefactive Liquefactive necrosis: 2/2 ischemic injuries that occur in nerve cells. Caseous Caseous Necrosis : injury occurs in lungs from TB Fat Fat Necrosis : breast, pancreas and other abd structures Gangrenous death of tissue due to hypoxia and subsequent bacterial invasion Altered Cellular Metabolism 3. Examine the mechanisms and effects of altered cellular metabolism.
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