Or modelsvarieties this was especially clear when the

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Business English
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Chapter 1 / Exercise 3
Business English
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or models/varieties. This was especially clear when the nonnative speakers had to read the passage and their recording was compared with that of the native speaker that had been recorded on the published audiocassette-tape. Interestingly, participant judgements seemed to show that they regarded the nonnative speakers’ overall speaking performance almost as highly as they did the native speaker when both speakers read individual sentences (74.3% vs. 237
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LAWRENCE JUN ZHANG 97.3%). However, when they read the Tom passage, a greater difference was found in participant perceptions generally (69.3% vs. 98.3%). Participant perceptions of both speakers’ English were also evident in the Tom passage. These were reflected in the participant judgements of “expressiveness in intonation” (67% vs. 100%), “naturalness in articulation” (71% vs. 100%), “acoustic comfort to the ear” (66.5% vs. 97%), and most importantly, their “personal preference” for a pronunciation model (52% vs. 92%). The native speakers were also rated as enjoying much higher social status (50% vs. 97%). There was also a big difference between the two speaker types in terms of the participants’ overall rating on the average (71.8% vs. 97.8%). All this suggests an overall participant preference for the native speakers. It is also interesting to note that participant perceptions of both varieties on the individual sentence task were not as clear as on the reading passage task. These findings motivated the next phase of the present study. Phase II: Awareness-raising Given that the participants showed their strong interest in and preference for the native-speaker model, the aims and objectives of Phase II were to explore possible impacts of awareness-raising activities on participant perceptions of their performance improvement in speaking English in their daily life or future jobs. In other words, through explicit instruction this part of the study was interested in examining any benefit of the awareness-raising activities on the importance of pronunciation and intonation in relation to effective communication. Participants All the participants in Phase I were invited to participate in this Phase II study. They had been informed of the results of Phase I study before this awareness- 238
ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics 145, No. 1 (2004) raising component was conducted. They were clearly told that their voices were taken as the basis on which this Phase II study was conducted. Material and Procedure The male nonnative-speaker teacher-researcher conducted the awareness-raising activities. In addition to the material used in Phase I Study, two additional pairs of dialogues (Excerpts 1 and 2) and an additional passage on language learning and teaching (MOHAN, 1986) were used as means of extended practice. The seven sentences and the Tom passage (HILL, 1977) and the language teaching passage (MOHAN, 1989) recorded by the native British English speaker were played in the class many times and the male nonnative EFL teacher-researcher practised together with the students by reading them aloud or when there was a

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