The onus of responsibility for protection of research subjects is borne by the

The onus of responsibility for protection of research

This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 11 pages.

responsibility for protection of research subjects is borne by the lead researcher. • To balance the benefits and risks of a study, its type, level, and number of risks are examined, and its potential benefits are identified. If possible, risks must be minimized and benefits maximized to achieve the best possible benefit-risk ratio. • Informed consent involves the transmission of essential information, comprehension of that information, competence to give consent, and voluntary consent of the prospective subject. • In institutional review, a committee of peers (IRB) examines each study for ethical concerns. The IRB conducts three levels of review: exempt,expedited, and full board. • The process for accessing PHI must be completed according to the HIPAA Privacy Rule. • Research misconduct includes fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism during the conduct, reporting, or publication of research. The ORI was developed to investigate and manage incidents of research misconduct to protect the integrity of research in all disciplines. • Another current ethical concern in research is the use of animals as subjects. The U.S. PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides direction for the conduct of research with animals as subjects.Chapter 10Designing a research study involves deciding upon three components: the research methodology, the research design, and the research methods. The best methodology, design, and methods are the ones that provide a meaningful answer to the proposed study's research question. • For the vast majority of well-worded research questions, the choice of a suitable methodology is clear. • Choice of a quantitative design first involves deciding between interventional and noninterventional. Noninterventional designs are descriptive or correlational.They describe and may establish correlation; they never establish causation. • Methods of a study define the way subjects will be recruited, sites will be chosen, and data will be collected, recorded, and analyzed. • Causality, multiple causality, probability, bias, measurement, prospective versus retrospective, partitioning, and validity are concepts relevant to both interventional and noninterventional quantitative research. • Design validity is based upon how well the researcher has (1) defined study concepts (construct validity), (2) eliminated potentiallyextraneous variables (internal validity), (3) chosen a sample so that results can be generalized back to the population (external validity), and (4) made appropriate statistical choices (statisticalconclusion validity). • Extraneous variables are variables other than the study variables that potentially affect the value of the dependent variable( s), making the independent variable appear more powerful or less powerful than it actually is. • Descriptive research describes the
Background image
phenomenon of interest and its related variables. Correlational research describes the relationships between and among variables. Secondary data analysis uses a data set collected
Background image
Image of page 7

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 11 pages?

  • Fall '16
  • Denise Cauble
  • Nursing, researcher

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes