- Executive Office of the President (EOP): a mini-bureaucracy created in 1939 to help the president oversee the executive branch bureaucracy - Office of Management and budget (OMB): the office that prepares the president’s annual budget proposal, review the budget and programs of the executive departments, supplies, economic forecasts, and conducts detailed analysis of proposed bills and agency rules. - Executive orders: rules or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register - Signing statement: occasional written comments attached to a bill signed by the president
- Federal bureaucracy: the thousands of federal government agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs - Spoils system: the firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party to replace them with loyalist of the newly elected party - Patronage: jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support - Merit system: a system of employment based on qualifications, test scores, and ability rather than party loyalty - Pendleton act: reform measure that established the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the civil service commission - Civil service system: the merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected - Independent regulatory: an entity created by Congress outside a major executive department - Departments: major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operation. Departmental status usually indicated a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture - Independent executive agencies: governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility and perform services rather than regulatory function - Government corporations: businesses established by Congress to perform functions that private businesses could provide - Hatch Act: the 1939 act to prohibit civil servant from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibits federal employees from making political contribution, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate - Implementation: the process by which a law or policy is put into operation - Iron triangles: the relatively ironclad relationships and pattern of interrelation that occur among agencies, interest group, and congressional committee or subcommittee - Issue networks: the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large
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- Spring '16
- Government, Supreme Court of the United States, President of the United States, U.S Supreme court