1 cell divides into 2 equal sized, smaller cells ii. Simplest method of reproduction 2. Transfer of Genetic Material a. Conjugation i. Bacterial sex ii. Genetic material transferred by + bacteria through pilus iii. Horizontal gene transfer b. Transduction i. Transfer of genetic material through viruses 1. BACTERIOPHAGES
ii. “Accidentally” pack bacteria DNA into capsids 1. Then inject this DNa into another bacterial cell iii. Plasmids replicate independently 1. Often carry genes for antibiotic resistance iv. Nosochomial 1. Infections acquired at hospitals a. Most are pathogenic b. Very antibiotic resistant due to transduction 3. Growth a. Resources limit bacterial growth b. Bacteria in a jar i. Double every minute ii. 11am to 12 pm, full at 12 pm iii. Half full at 11:59 am 4. Metabolism a. Metabolic plasticity b. Can adapt their metabolism to their environment c. Fermentation
i. ii. Final electron acceptor is an organic molecule d. Respiration i. ii. Final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule e. Aerobe: O2 is the final electron acceptor f. Anaerobe: killed in O2 g. Facultative anaerobe: tolerates O2 ● Bacteria live everywhere on Earth ○ Have metabolically adapted to their environments ● Eccrine sweat glands are the main reason humans have come out “on top” ○ Can walk in sun ○ Drink a lot of water
■ WATERBORNE PATHOGENS HAVE ADVANTAGE ● Pili = most important structure ○ Allows for attachment to substrates HOW DO BACTERIA CAUSE SO MUCH DAMAGE?
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- Spring '18