Most creative period in American art and literature RESISTANCE TO CHANGE•Wealth of the 1920’s was not evenly distributed•Cities vs. rural areasoRural- mainly Anglo-Saxon Home of Protestant religion Old-fashioned moral standardsBecame poor country people oCities- undesirable immigrantsHad Catholics, Jews, liberal Protestants, and atheists Imaginable vice •Rejecting the UndesirablesoWar against Germany expanded nativist and antiradical sentiment After the war, immigrants were still coming in largeCongress responded by severely restricting immigration oJohnson-Reid Act Limited the number of immigrants to no more than 161k a year and each European nation had a quotaManipulated quotas for entry of “good” immigrants o1924 law Backed up the 1880s law barring Chinese immigrants and added other Asian races to the list •Rural Americans, industrialists and labor leaders supported this•The Rebirth of the KKKo1915- Klan revived Griffith’s film Birth of a NationoKlan spread its targets to more than blacks and beyond the South o“100% Americanism”Attracted 3-4 million members oEventually social changes & lawless excess crippled the KKK •The Scopes Trial - 1925oReligion vs. science in schoolsoSome states banned teaching evolutionJohn Scopes tested TN and taught evolution •Outraged Fundamentalists (Creation in 7 days)oTrial became a media circus First trial covered on live radio oScopes was found guilty and paid a $100 fine. •Al Smith & the Election of 1928
oRepublicans emphasized the economic success of their party’s pro-business gov’toEconomy was basically stable; so the battle was over social issuesoDemocratic Nominee:Alfred E. Smith•Represented what all rural Americans feared and resented •Felt immigration quotas were wrong•Signed NY’s anti-Klan bill•Opposed prohibition •Greatest vulnerability was his religion—Catholicism oRepublican Nominee:Herbert Hoover•Image of morality, efficiency, service, and prosperity •Won by a land-slideoWon because of the Democratic South who didn’t support Smith’s views The Great Crash•Herbert Hover: the Great EngineeroPersonified America’s rags to riches deal“Great Humanitarian”oCame from progressive wing of his party (R)oUrged for the ‘laissez-faire’ approachUrged a limited business-gov’t partnership•The Distorted Economy oSpring 1929- US had prosperity; world’s leading economyoDidn’t really help Europe’s economy after WWI US wanted Allied nations to repay their debt & large reparations from Germany.Enacted tariffs to prevent other nations from selling their goods to US US gave credit to foreign customers huge debt oDomestic economy was also badWealth unevenly distributed Farmers continued to suffer from low prices; low income.
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