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2 after printing about 300 sets of this series goya

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2. “After printing about 300 sets of this series, Goya offered them for sale in 1799. He withdrew them from sale twodayslater without explanation. Historians believe that he was probably warned by the Church that if he did not do sohe mighthave to appear before the Inquisition because of his unflattering portrayal of the Church in some of theetchings”(Stokstad,Art History969). “You can make a protomodernist out of Goya, just as the nineteenth centurymade him aproto-Romantic and then a proto-Realist. His dismembered carcasses in theDisasters of Wardirectlyinspired Gericault’s.Manet’s assiduously imitated him- his Parisiennes on the balcony are Goya’smajastransposedto Paris, his bullfight is adirect homage to Goya’sTauromaquias. Dali constantly invoked him, and fromL’Age d’OrtoThe Exterminating Angel, LuisBunuel’s films elliptically refer to Goya and constitute a cinematic parallel to his eightyprints about the sexual and socialfollies of Madrid, theCaprichos. Picasso, of course, meditated on Goya from firstto last and was always scared of thecomparison. Among Americans, to name only a couple, Goya surfacesdramatically in the late works of Philip Guston (somany of which seem homages to theCaprichos) and in the tragicblacks and humped profiles of Robert Motherwell’sElegies to the Spanish Republic” (Hughes,Nothing If Not Critical51). “But you cannot make Goya into a proto-postmodernist. He is never trivial enough for that. It is the wholenessof his fiction, in its unremitting earnestness, its desire toknow and tell the truth, that our art has lost. This is whatused to be meant when a great artist was called ‘universal’: youcan’t take the term literally- there is no imaginableGoya who could mean as much to a Chinese as to a European- but itdoes suggest the power of such artists to keepappealing through their imagery to very different people along the strandof a common cultural descent, so that evenwhen beliefs have lost their fervency, when both the oppressors and theoppressed are dead, when the references ofreligion and popular culture have changed, as they certainly have betweenMadrid in 1809 and New York in 1989, stillwe venture to claim Goya as our own. Our ability to describe ourselves issomewhat inflected by this man’s painting,drawings and prints” (51).3. “You could not claim this for any of his Spanish contemporaries. It doesn’t entirely rest on his greatness as an artisteither, since other great painters of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries don’t have Goya’s ability to projecttheir images from their time into ours. No matter how much we love Watteau, his sense of society is closed to usforever;we will never be able to imagine ourselves taking part in those rituals on the shaved lawns of the paradisegarden. But Goya is a different matter” (51). “Goya’s liberalism is bound up with his class ambitions. In the lateeighteenthcentury, which also saw the first phase of Goya’s career, Madrid had a thin veneer ofilustrados, whoseinfluence waslargely dependent on royal approval- which they got in plenty from Charles II. Their liberalism wassafeguarded not bypopular movements, but by the direct sympathy of the monarch. Like many of the aristocratswho supported the FrenchRevolution in its pre-Jacobin years, they perceived their King as the caretaker of liberalreform. But the

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Age of Enlightenment, History of painting, Mrs Moros

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