Managers may choose what is beneficial to the

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Managers may choosewhat is beneficialto the organizationand ignore what is beneficialto individuals.Many other interventionspose a similar dilemma.Use with caution.
Motivation – An Integrated ModelMotivationshould lead to work effortby individuals and teams.When such effortis accompaniedby individual skillsand abilities, and a work environmentthat nurtures the effort, one can expect excellencein performance.The extentto which the excellent performanceis repeatedis a function of equityand reinforcement.Ideally, satisfactionand rewardsshould form a virtuous cycleleading to enhanced motivationand sustained superior performance.Motivation – An Integrated ModelIndividual attributes + work effort + organizational support = performance.Extrinsic rewards + net intrinsic rewards + equity comparison = satisfaction or dissatisfaction leading to superior or diminished performance.Motivation in PracticeJob designand job specialization – how jobs are structured and standardized; rooted in scientific management; can result inefficiency but also in monotony.Job rotation – popularized in Japan; moving people from one type of work to another at periodic intervals in an effort to reduce monotony and fatigue.Job enlargement – increasing the number of tasks performed by individuals in the hope that increased “ownership” of tasks leads to higher productivity – for example, changing sequential processes to parallel processes; also called horizontal loading.Motivation in PracticeJob enrichment – increases individual tasks as in job enlargement and also gives individuals considerable freedom for achieving desired results – also called vertical loading. For example,
janitorial staff being allowed to perform tasks in any sequence and also allowed to be responsible for buying supplies.Job characteristics theory – combines essential elements of job– task, skill, significance, autonomy, and feedback – with key psychological elements– extent to which individual perceives job to be valuable and meaningful; the extent to which individual feels personal accountability for outcomes; and the extent to which individual understands how effectively the job has been done.Motivation in PracticeParticipation – providing opportunities for employees to be involved in decision-making.Empowerment – enabling individuals to set goals, develop processes, make decisions, and solve problems in their domain of activity.Flextime – allowing individuals to have control over their work hours.Teleworking – allowing individuals to work from home or a remote location.Job sharing – facilitating part-time employees to share parts of a job that would otherwise be performed by a full-time employee.Mechanisms for Motivation in PracticePay for performance – consistent with equity, expectancy, and reinforcement theories. Works when transparentpractices are adopted.

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