-yet some among middle class upset; and some want to give more democracy and concessions to workers on strike. Others wanted more suppression. • -Peasant armies: go into open revolt • Peasants in the south, led by Emiliano Zapata in Morelos • Francisco Villa in the north • 34 35 36 37 38
1/20/2015 8 • • -Francisco Madero: liberal reformer • -he is part of rural elite. Wealthy northern rancher. Not a radical but a liberal. • Argue for liberal reforms. Diaz has Madero arrested when he tries to run against Diaz for president in l9l0. Madero calls for open revolt. • Forms a brief alliance with Zapata and Villa • Plan de san Luis Potosi: Madero’s political manifesto • Calls for resignation of Diaz • Establishment of democracy • Return of land • Backed (for a time) by peasant armies of Zapata and Villa • Madero forces Diaz into exile, takes over government. • BUT -once in power, he has no intention of making good on promises of land distribution (he was a landowner, remember) • • His view similar to Diaz, although Madero supported elections and less corruption • Zapata realizes he has been betrayed. Although Madero tries to buy him off with land, Zapata refuses and declares war on Madero. • -Zapata issues the radical Plan de Ayala: • Similar to Magon’s plan of PLM (indigenous communalism similar to Magon’s platform) • -to take over large landholdings and distribute them to peasants in form of ejidos (a system of communal land holding based on the old pre-capitalist economy of Indian villages) • -this land could not be sold or leased. It was to revert to Indian communalism. • • • • CIVIL WAR in Mexico: from 1910-1917 • -Madero killed quickly, Zapata killed by a trap. • -Revolution split into battles between different factions, with different leaders • Close to a million Mexicans killed, especially peasants • IV: The Mexican Revolution in international context • -Part of global economic and political crisis, but followed own path • -popular rebellion in which all groups call for full political participation • Porfirio Diaz had transformed Mexico from a peasant to a commercial nation, but hadn’t’ provided political participation • Zapata and Magon had wanted reform and some radical changes • But: Provincial and local elites who gained control after l9l5, wanted broader political recognition but under their control. • -successfully divide rural workers and urban workers. 39 40 41 42 43
1/20/2015 9 • -with arms taken from the US at Veracruz, they defeated the anarcho-syndicalist leaders of the labor movement • • -The Constitution of l9l7 and the Government. – • "the most radical constitution in the world at that time" • -key measures • 1) land reform: annulled enormous land concessions made under Diaz to attract foreign capital. Created ejidos similar to those proposed under Zapata's Plan de Ayala • 2) limits placed on foreign ownership of resources • 3) workers granted the right to strike, organize into unions. The constitution called for
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- Spring '08
- World History, Land, Mexican Revolution, Porfirio Díaz, General Porfirio Díaz