yet some among middle class upset and some want to give more democracy and

Yet some among middle class upset and some want to

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-yet some among middle class upset; and some want to give more democracy and concessions to workers on strike. Others wanted more suppression. -Peasant armies: go into open revolt Peasants in the south, led by Emiliano Zapata in Morelos Francisco Villa in the north 34 35 36 37 38
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1/20/2015 8 -Francisco Madero: liberal reformer -he is part of rural elite. Wealthy northern rancher. Not a radical but a liberal. Argue for liberal reforms. Diaz has Madero arrested when he tries to run against Diaz for president in l9l0. Madero calls for open revolt. Forms a brief alliance with Zapata and Villa Plan de san Luis Potosi: Madero’s political manifesto Calls for resignation of Diaz Establishment of democracy Return of land Backed (for a time) by peasant armies of Zapata and Villa Madero forces Diaz into exile, takes over government. BUT -once in power, he has no intention of making good on promises of land distribution (he was a landowner, remember) His view similar to Diaz, although Madero supported elections and less corruption Zapata realizes he has been betrayed. Although Madero tries to buy him off with land, Zapata refuses and declares war on Madero. -Zapata issues the radical Plan de Ayala: Similar to Magon’s plan of PLM (indigenous communalism similar to Magon’s platform) -to take over large landholdings and distribute them to peasants in form of ejidos (a system of communal land holding based on the old pre-capitalist economy of Indian villages) -this land could not be sold or leased. It was to revert to Indian communalism. CIVIL WAR in Mexico: from 1910-1917 -Madero killed quickly, Zapata killed by a trap. -Revolution split into battles between different factions, with different leaders Close to a million Mexicans killed, especially peasants IV: The Mexican Revolution in international context -Part of global economic and political crisis, but followed own path -popular rebellion in which all groups call for full political participation Porfirio Diaz had transformed Mexico from a peasant to a commercial nation, but hadn’t’ provided political participation Zapata and Magon had wanted reform and some radical changes But: Provincial and local elites who gained control after l9l5, wanted broader political recognition but under their control. -successfully divide rural workers and urban workers. 39 40 41 42 43
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1/20/2015 9 -with arms taken from the US at Veracruz, they defeated the anarcho-syndicalist leaders of the labor movement -The Constitution of l9l7 and the Government. – "the most radical constitution in the world at that time" -key measures 1) land reform: annulled enormous land concessions made under Diaz to attract foreign capital. Created ejidos similar to those proposed under Zapata's Plan de Ayala 2) limits placed on foreign ownership of resources 3) workers granted the right to strike, organize into unions. The constitution called for
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  • Spring '08
  • idon'tremember
  • World History, Land, Mexican Revolution, Porfirio Díaz, General Porfirio Díaz

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