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Moreover, the power to impose taxes and other levies, the power toappropriate money, and the power to pass ordinances or resolutions withpenal sanctions were vested exclusively in the MMC.Thus, Metropolitan Manila had a “central government,” i.e., theMMC which fully possessed legislative and police powers. Whateverlegislative powers the component cities and municipalities had were allsubject to review and approval by the MMC.After President Corazon Aquino assumed power, there was a clamorto restore the autonomy of the local government units in Metro Manila.Hence, Sections 1 and 2 of Article X of the 1987 Constitution x x x.The Constitution, however, recognized the necessity of creating149
metropolitan regions not only in the existing National Capital Regionbut also in potential equivalents in the Visayas and Mindanao. X x xThe Constitution itself expressly provides that Congress may, bylaw, create “special metropolitan political subdivisions” which shall besubject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite inthe political units directly affected; the jurisdiction of thissubdivision shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination;and the cities and municipalities comprising this subdivision shallretain their basic autonomy and their own local executive andlegislative assemblies (Section 11, Article X, 1987 Constitution).Pending enactment of this law, the Transitory Provisions of theConstitution gave the President of the Philippines the power toconstitute the Metropolitan Authority x x x.In 1990, President Aquino issued Executive Order No. 392 andconstituted the Metropolitan Manila Authority (MMA). The powers andfunctions of the MMC were devolved to the MMA. It ought to be stressed,however, that not all powers and functions of the MMC were passed to theMMA. The MMA’s power was limited to the “delivery of basic urbanservices requiring coordination in Metropolitan Manila.”The MMA’sgoverning body, the Metropolitan Manila Council, although composed ofthe mayors of the component cities and municipalities, was merely giventhe power of:(1) formulation of policies on the delivery of basicservices requiring coordination and consolidation; and (2) promulgationof resolutions and other issuances, approval of a code of basic servicesand the exercise of its rule-making power.” Under the 1987 Constitution, the local government units becameprimarily responsible for the governance of their respective politicalsubdivisions. The MMA’s jurisdiction was limitedto addressing commonproblems involving basic services that transcended local boundaries.It did not have legislative power. Its power was merely to provide thelocal government units technical assistance in the preparation of localdevelopment plans. Any semblance of legislative power it had wasconfined to a “review [of] legislation proposed by the local legislativeassemblies to ensure consistency among local governments and with the