8 references anderson c cromwell rl 1977 black is

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would greatly enhance understanding of how skin tone bias affects African Americans.
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8 References Anderson, C., & Cromwell, R.L. (1977). “Black is beautiful” and the color preferences of Afro- American youth. Journal of Negro Education , 46 (winter), 76-88. Bond, S., & Cash, T.F. (1992). Black beauty: Skin color and body images among African- American college women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 22 (11), 874-888. Boyd-Franklin, N. (1991). Recurrent themes in the treatment of African American women in group psychotherapy. Women & Therapy , 11 (2), 25-40. Drake, S., & Cayton, H. (1945). Black Metropolis . New York: Harcourt Brace. Edwards, O.L. (1973). Skin color as a variable in racial attitudes of Black urbanites. Journal of Black Studies , 3 (4), 473-483. Freeman, H.E., Ross, J.M., Armor, D., & Pettigrew, T.F. (1966). Color gradation and attitudes among middle-income Negroes. American Sociological Review , 31 , 365-374. Goering, J.M. (1971). Changing perceptions and evaluations of physical characteristics among Blacks. Phylon , 33 , 231-241. Hall, R.E. (1992). Bias among African American regarding skin color: Implications for social work practice. Research on Social Work Practice , 2 (4), 479-486. Holtzman, J. (1973). Color caste changes among Black college students. Journal of Black Studies , 4 (1), 92-101. Hughes, M., & Hertel, B.R. (1990). The significance of color remains: A study of life chances, mate selection, and ethnic consciousness among Black Americans. Social Forces , 68 (4), 1105-1120. Jackson, J.S., Tucker, B., & Gurin, G. (1987). National Survey of Black Americans . Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.
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9 Keith, V.M., & Herring, C. (1991). Skin tone and stratification in the Black community. American Journal of Sociology , 97 (3), 760-778. Marks, E.S. (1943). Skin color judgments of Negro college students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , 38 , 370-376. Neal, A.M., & Wilson, M.L. (1989). The role of skin color and features in the Black community: Implications for Black women and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review , 9 , 323- 333. Okazawa-Rey, M., Robinson, T., & Ward, J.V. (1987). Black women and the politics of skin color and hair. Women & Therapy , 6 (1-2), 89-102. Porter, C.P. (1991). Social reasons for skin tone preferences of Black school-age children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 61 (1), 149-154. Ransford, H.E. (1970). Skin color, life chances, and anti-White attitudes. Social Problems , 18 , 164-179. Robinson, T.L., & Ward, J.V. (1995). African American adolescents and skin color. Journal of Black Psychology , 21 (3), 256-274. Russell, K., Wilson, M.L., & Hall, R.E. (1992). The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Seeman, M. (1946). Skin color values in three all-Negro school classes. American Sociological Review , 11 , 315-321. Udry, J.R., Bauman, K.E., & Chase, C. (1969). Skin color, status, and mate selection. American Journal of Sociology , 76 , 722-733.
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