Their answers are used to form personality profiles. •The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest when personality and occupation are in agreement. oThe key points of this model are that:1. There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals2. There are different types of jobs 3. People in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied and less likely to voluntarily resign than people in incongruent jobs.•The Person-Organization Fitis most important for an organization facing a dynamic and changing environment. oSuch organizations require employees who are able to readily change tasks and move fluidly between teams It argues that people leave jobs that are not with their personalities.
•Using the Big Five terminology, for instance, we could expect that people high on extraversion fit well with aggressive and team-oriented cultures, that people high on agreeableness match up better with a supportive organizational climate than one focused on aggressiveness, and that people high on openness to experience fit better in organizations that emphasize innovation rather than standardization. oResearch on person–organization fithas also looked at whether people’s values match the organization’s culture.This match predicts job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, and low turnover.•Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national cultureoOne of the most widely referenced approaches for analyzing variations among cultures was done in the late 1970s by Geert HofstedeHe surveyed more than 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work-related values and found that managers and employees vary on five values dimensions of national cultureoHofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures suggests five value dimensions of national culture.Power distance•Power distancedescribes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequallyoA high rating on power distance means that large inequalities of power and wealth exist and are tolerated in the culture, as in a class or caste system that discourages upward mobilityoA low power distance rating characterizes societies that stress equality and opportunityIndividualism versus collectivism•Individualismis the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else •Collectivismemphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect themMasculinity versus femininity •Hofstede’s construct of masculinityis the degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine roles such as achievement, power, and control, as opposed to viewing men and women as equalsoA high masculinityrating indicates the culture has separate roles for men and women, with men dominating the society
oA high femininity rating means the culture sees little differentiation between male and female roles and treats women as the equals of men in all respectsUncertainty avoidance•The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over