too much about structures of domination, and too little about processes of resistance and change.Knowledge ofthe ugly depthsand staying power of racism is a necessaryand painful awakeningfor most students, whose prior education and upbringing have left them in ignorance or denial. If they lackan equivalent knowledge aboutthe possibilities for change, studentsmay become overwhelmed and fearfulas they internalize this new knowledge. Rather than desiring to work for change, they conclude, nothing can be done, the power structures are just too strong[email protected]Sadly, the students who conclude this are often those who need change the most, i. e. the students of color and low income students who are looking up at American society from the bottom of the well.
AT: Antrix and DebrixArtrip and Debrix wrong --- it’s not all simulacra Mitchell Hobbs 6, The University of Newcastle, Australia, REFLECTIONS ON THE REALI TY OFTHE IRAQ WARS: THE DEMISE OFBAUDRILLARD’S SEARCH FORTRUTH?, udrillards_search_for_truthAlthough Baudrillard’s work on “simulation”and “simulacra” is valuablein highlightingthe relationship between the mass media and reality, and, in particular, the ways in which media content(images and narratives) come to be de-contextualised,his theses areper se insufficient forthe analysisof the contemporary mass media. For instance, asmedia theorist and researcher Douglas Kellner (2003:31) notes, beyond the level of media spectacle, Baudrillard does not help readers understandevents such as the Gulf War, because he reducesthe actionsof actorsand complex political issuestocategories of “simulation”and “hyper-reality”, in a sense “erasing their concrete determinants”.Kellner, who like Baudrillard, has written extensively on media spectacles, including theGulf Wars, sees Baudrillard’s theory asbeing “one-dimensional”, “privilege[ing] the form of media technology over its content, meaning and…use” (Kellner, 1989:73). In thisregard, Baudrillard does not account for the political economic dimensions of the newsmedia, nor the cultural practices involvedwith the production of news (Kellner, 1989:73-74). Thus, he suffers fromthe same technologically deterministic essentialismthatundermined the media theories of Marshall McLuhan, albeit in a different form (Kellner,1989:73-74).Although Kellner (2003:32) believes that Baudrillard’s pre-1990s works on “the consumer society, on the political economy of the sign, simulation and simulacra,and the implosion of [social] phenomenon” are useful and can be deployed within criticalsocial theory, he prefers to read Baudrillard’s later, more controversial and obscure, workas “science fiction which anticipates the future by exaggerating present tendencies”In order to understand warand its relationship with the media in the contemporary era it is,then, necessary to move beyond Baudrillard’s spectacular theoryof media spectacle. For although our