At birth 25 of adult brain weight 6 months 50 of adult brain weight cells

At birth 25 of adult brain weight 6 months 50 of

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At birth – 25% of adult brain weight 6 months – 50% of adult brain weight cells become larger and neural networks form growth rate slows in later childhood 5 years - 90% of adult brain weight o Newborns have an innate preference for faces as they track face like stimuli Newborns look at outside features of faces while older infants look at eyes and mouth, just as adults do o Orientation and Habituation Orienting Reflex – humans, including infants, pay more attention to novel than familiar stimuli Habituation – Infants get bored with repeated presentations of the same thing Habituation Paradigm – babies are sensitive to statistics, they know when something is off Ex Red ping pong ball in a white ping pong ball bin o Newborns such more when they hear their native language and when they hear their moms voice
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o Piagets primary method was to ask children to solve problems and then ask about their reasoning, determined that children think radically different than adults o Piaget believed that development results from maturation and experience, and that thinking changes qualitatively with age, stages Brain builds schemas (organized patterns of thought) Two processes involved in acquiring new schemas Assimilation – process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas (child who sees a horse for first time may call it a “big dog”) Accommodation – process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change (child will realize the “big dog” isn’t a dog) Four major stages of cognitive growth: Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2) – children understand their world primarily through sensory experience and physical interaction o Around eighteen months, achieve object permanence (ability to understand that an object continues to exist even out of sight) o Pseudoimitation (child can imitate actions just produced) present Preoperational stage (2-7) – children represent the world symbolically through words and mental images, but do not understand basic mental operations o Cannot understand concept of conservation (principle that basic properties of objects, such as mass and volume, stay the same despite change in outward appearance) o Exhibit egocentrism (difficulty in viewing world from someone else’s perspective – children believe that others perceive world as they do) Concrete operational stage (7-12) – children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involved concrete objects and situations Formal operational stage (12+) – children are able to think logically and systematically about concrete and abstract problems o Universal tests show that the general cognitive abilities associated with the four stages appear to occur in the same order across cultures (Piaget is only a partial dumbass) Culture has been found to influence cognitive development Cognitive development within each stage seems to proceed inconsistently o
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