Mic 101 exam 2 there are two interrelated complement

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MIC 101 Exam 2 Page 11 12. There are two interrelated Complement Pathways. More specifically -- A. • The Classical Complement Pathway is a major Defense Mechanism of Adaptive Immunity. • The Classical Complement Pathway is initiated when Complement Component C1 attaches to two IgG Antibody Molecules or a single IgM Antibody Molecule bound to Antigen. • Activated C1 cleaves C4 and C2 and the resultant C4b,2b Complex cleaves C3 to C3a and C3b. • C3b initiates a Cascade Reaction that results in the Formation of a polymeric Membrane Attack Complex that lyses Pathogens. B. • The Classical Complement Pathway is a major Defense Mechanism of Innate Immunity. • The Classical Complement Pathway is initiated when Complement Component C1 attaches to two IgG, two IgA or a single IgM Antibody Molecule bound to Antigen. • Activated C1 cleaves C2 and C3 and the resultant C2b,3b Complex cleaves C4 to C4a and C4b. • C4b binds to Pathogens and attracts Macrophages and Neutrophils that will phagocytose these Pathogens. C. • The Alternative Complement Pathway is a major Defense Mechanism of Adaptive Immunity. • The Alternative Complement Pathway is initiated when spontaneously cleaved C3 and Factor B in the Bloodstream form a C3b,Bb Complex that attaches to specific Microbial Antigens. • The C3b,Bb Complex cleaves C3 to C3a and C3b. • C3b initiates a Cascade Reaction that results in the Formation of a polymeric Membrane Attack Complex that lyses Pathogens. D. • The Alternative Complement Pathway is a major Defense Mechanism of Innate Immunity. • The Alternative Complement Pathway is initiated when Complement Component C1 attaches to two IgG Antibody Molecules or a single IgM Antibody Molecule bound to Antigen. • Activated C1 cleaves C4 and C2 and the resultant C4b,2b Complex cleaves C5 to C5a and C5b. • C5b induces Mast Cell Degranulation and attracts Neutrophils that will phagocytose Pathogens..
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MIC 101 Exam 2 Page 12 13. While in Germany, Shibasaburo Kitasato ( ) did pioneering Work on Clostridium tetani , the Gram Positive, Spore-Forming Bacterium responsible for Tetanus and showed that it was not the Bacterium itself but a Toxin produced by the Bacterium that caused Tetanus. When you receive a Tetanus Booster you are simultaneously also receiving a Diphtheria Booster. The latter is in the Form of a soluble Diphtheria Toxoid (G= like a toxin) , a harmless Version of the soluble Diphtheria Toxin. The Idea is to stimulate your Immune System to make Antibodies against the harmless, soluble Diphtheria Toxoid in your Bloodstream. These Antibodies against the harmless Diphtheria Toxoid will be equally Effective (“Cross-React”) against any deadly Diphtheria Toxin in your Bloodstream. This Diphtheria Toxoid would almost certainly be presented by -- • The Presentation of these Exogenous Antigens will nudge this CD4 + T H 0 T Cell to develop into an Activated, Type 2 Cytokine-secreting T H 2 Helper T Cell that will initiate an Antibody-Mediated Immune Response. • The Presentation of these Endogenous Antigens will nudge this CD4 + T H 0 T Cell to develop into an Activated, Type 1 Cytokine-secreting T H 1 Inflammatory T Cell that will initiate a Cell-Mediated Immune Response.
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