Change the default administrator username and

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Change the default administrator username and password. Default usernames and passwords are easily guessed or discovered by checking the device documentation. By changing the password, you protect the system from unauthorized access. Update the firmware on the router to fix bugs or security vulnerabilities. Firmware updates are typically downloaded from the manufacturer's website. Some SOHO routers can automatically download and install firmware updates. Enable NAT Small networks use a single public IP address to connect to the Internet, which is shared by all devices on the private network. Network address translation (NAT) is a protocol that allows multiple computers to share a single public IP address used on the Internet. The Internet is classified as a public network. All devices on the public network must have a registered IP address. This address is assigned by the ISP. The SOHO network is classified as a private network. All devices on the private network use private IP addresses internally, but share the public IP address when accessing the Internet. A NAT router associates a port number with each private IP address. Communications with the private hosts from the Internet are sent to the public IP address and the associated port number. Port assignments are made automatically by the NAT router. The private network can use addresses in the following ranges that have been reserved for private use
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(i.e., they will not be used by hosts on the Internet): o 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 o 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 o 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 Configure DHCP While you can manually assign IP addresses to hosts on the private network, most SOHO routers have a built-in DHCP server. On the router, enable the DHCP server and identify the subnet address and mask that will be used on the private network. Be sure to use a subnet address within the private IP address ranges. The DHCP server will automatically assign IP addresses within the range you specify. The DHCP server delivers its own IP address as the default gateway address. Depending on the configuration, the DHCP server will use one of the following for DNS server addresses for hosts on the private network: o Its own IP address. In this case, the router acts as a DNS proxy and forwards all DNS requests to the DNS server at the ISP. o The DNS server addresses configured at the ISP. With this configuration, clients attempt to connect directly to the DNS servers at the ISP for name resolution requests. Secure the SOHO network Although the router should now be configured to connect hosts to the private network and provide Internet access, the following steps should be taken to properly secure the network from external threats: Configure the firewall on the device. Enabling the basic firewall on the router provides an additional level of security for the private network. If necessary, configure exceptions on the firewall to allow specific traffic through the firewall.
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