ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

From a perceptual standpoint if people expect to see

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From a perceptual standpoint, if people expect to see these stereotypes, that is what they will perceive, whether it’s accurate or not. People in organizations are always judging each other. In many cases, these judgments have important consequences for the organization. A major input into who is hired and who is rejected in any organization is the employment interview. Evidence indicates that interviewers often make inaccurate perceptual judgments. Interviewers generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. If negative information is exposed early in the interview, it tends to be more heavily weighted than if the information comes out later. Studies indicate that most interviewers’ decisions change very little after the first four or five minutes of the interview.
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The terms self-fulfilling prophecy, or Pygmalion effect occurs when one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception. This effect has evolved to characterize the fact that people’s expectations determine their behavior. Or, in other words, if a manager expects big things from his people, they’re not likely to let him down. Similarly, if a manager expects people to perform minimally, they’ll tend to behave so as to meet these low expectations . Thus the expectations become reality. An important judgment that managers make about employees is whether they are loyal to the organization. Whistle- blowers are individuals who report unethical practices by their employers to authorities inside and/or outside the organization. These people typically act out of loyalty to their organization, but are perceived by management as troublemakers . What is perceived as loyalty by one decision maker may be seen as excessive conformity by another. An employee who questions a top management decision may be seen as disloyal by some, yet caring and concerned by others. Individuals in organizations make decisions, that is, they make choices from among two or more alternatives. Top managers determine their organization’s goals, what products or services to offer, and how best to organize corporate headquarters. Nonmanagerial employees also make decisions that affect their jobs and the organizations they work for. The more obvious of these decisions might include whether to come to work or not on any given day, how much effort to put forward once at work, and whether to comply with a request made by the boss. Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem, which is a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state. Most problems don’t come neatly packaged with a label “problem” clearly displayed on them. One person’s problem is another person’s satisfactory state of affairs. One manager may view her division’s 2 percent decline in quarterly sales to be a serious problem requiring immediate action on her part. In contrast, her counterpart in another division of the same company, who also had a 2 percent sales decrease, may consider that quite satisfactory. The
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