Simon bolivar sent to europe to complete his

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Simon Bolivar – sent to Europe to complete his education a.Wanted ordinary people to be free and have rights 7)Sources of Discontenta.Ethnic and Social Hierarchyi.Peninsulares – Spanish-born and dominated Latin American political and social life ii.Creoles – European – descended Latin Americans who were the second-class iii.Mestizos –people of Native American and European descent iv.Mulattoes – people of African and European descent v.Classes did not trust each other b.Napoleon Bonapartei.Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 ignited the widespread rebellion in Latin America ii.Latin Americans saw Spain’s weakness as an opportunity to reject foreign domination and demand independence form colonial rule 8)Haiti’s Struggle for Independence i.Toussaint L’Ouverture – a self-educated reformer slave 1.Brilliant general who led slaves to freedom in Haiti c.Independencei.Toussaint urged Haitians to fight for full independence from France ii.Truce – temporary peace iii.The French agreed to a truce 9)Independence for Mexico and Central America i.Father Hidalgo – rang the church bells to summon people to prayer. He called Mexicans to fight for Independence and Liberty. ii.They soon rejected Hidalgo’s call for an end to slavery. i.A mestizo who called for wide-ranging social and political reform ii.Wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, abolish slavery, and give the right to vote to all men i.Liberals forced the king to issue a constitution ii.Agustin de Iturbide – a conservative creole in Mexico 1.Feared that the new Spanish government might impose liberal reforms on the colonies 2.Overthrew the Spanish viceroy and became Emperor Agustin I 3.Mexico was free of Spanish rule 10)Independence in South Americaa.A Native American Revolti.Tupac Amaru1.Claimed descent from Incan kings 2.Led Native Americans against Spanish rule 3.Spanish officials rejected his demand for reform 4.After, the Spanish king ordered officials to look into the system of forced labor and eventually abolished it ii.Bolivar1.An educated creole 2.Led an uprising that established a republic in Venezuela 3.Created an alliance with llaneros to attack the Spanish at Bogota. 4.Became known as “The Liberator” and joined forces with Jose de San Martin iii.San Martin1.San Martin was a creole 2.Helped Argentina win freedom from Spain iv.Dreams and Disappointments1.Bolivar tried to unite the lands he had liberated into a single nation, called Gran Colombia 2.Rivalries made that dream impossible 3.Instead, it was split into Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador v.Independence for Brazil1.Dom Pedro was left to rule Brazil. 2.He became emperor of Brazil and accepted a constitution for freedom or press, religion, and an elected legislature Chapter 22 Section 1 1)New Industrial Powers i.Other nations have more abundant supplies of coal, iron, and other resources than Britain.ii.Latecomers were able to borrow British experts or technology.iii.Robert Fulton – powered his steamboat with one of James Watt’s steam enginesi.Other nations industrialized more slowlyii.They lacked natural resources or the capital to invest in industryiii.Social and political conditions slowed Russia’s economic development.iv.Japan industrialized rapidly even though it lacked many basic resources

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