, Chapter 11: “Depression”
1. What led Japan to take control of Manchuria and into a war in China? In
particular, why were the young military officers “increasingly frustrated with
Japan’s foreign and domestics policies”? Why did these views lead them to push for
the “bold action” in Manchuria?
2. What led to the end of party cabinets and the rise of military and bureaucratic
leaders in the formation of the “national unity cabinet” in 1932? What was going
on abroad that helped bring about this change? What was going at home that
helped bring about this change?
3. Why did the officials of the Ministry of Commerce promote the use of cartels as
an important part of state involvement in the economy?
4. Gordon notes that in the 1930s, the mainstream political parties “were out of
power, but not powerless.” What was the basis of their power, and what did they
seek with this power?
5. Explain the relationship between the two “most crucial features of politics in the
1930s”—continued turbulence within the military and the rising power of the army
over the bureaucracy, the court, and the parties.”
, Chapter 12: “Wartime”
1. What led Japan to attack the United States at Pearl Harbor? In particular, why