Study questions history chapter 11 depression 1 what

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STUDY QUESTIONS History , Chapter 11: “Depression” 1. What led Japan to take control of Manchuria and into a war in China? In particular, why were the young military officers “increasingly frustrated with Japan’s foreign and domestics policies”? Why did these views lead them to push for the “bold action” in Manchuria? 2. What led to the end of party cabinets and the rise of military and bureaucratic leaders in the formation of the “national unity cabinet” in 1932? What was going on abroad that helped bring about this change? What was going at home that helped bring about this change? 3. Why did the officials of the Ministry of Commerce promote the use of cartels as an important part of state involvement in the economy? 4. Gordon notes that in the 1930s, the mainstream political parties “were out of power, but not powerless.” What was the basis of their power, and what did they seek with this power? 5. Explain the relationship between the two “most crucial features of politics in the 1930s”—continued turbulence within the military and the rising power of the army over the bureaucracy, the court, and the parties.” History , Chapter 12: “Wartime” 1. What led Japan to attack the United States at Pearl Harbor? In particular, why
did the US lead “an international embargo that cut off all foreign oil supplies to Japan”? What “difficult choice” did the embargo force Japanese leaders to make? 2. What was the legacy of the war in East and Southeast Asia? What was the legacy of the war to the Japanese themselves? History , Chapter 13: “Occupied Japan” 1. In 1945, SCAP’s immediate strategy for Japan’s postwar reconstruction was encapsulated in two words: demilitarize and democratize. In the minds of SCAP personnel, how were these goals linked? In what ways did Occupation policy tackle each of these goals? 2 What changes did the postwar constitution make to Japan’s political institutions? 3 Why did General MacArthur support the preserving of the emperor, rather than forcing Emperor Hirohito to “stand trial for war crimes or even simply abdicate”? 4 What determined why some of SCAP reforms had more impact than others? Why was land reform so successful, for example, while attempts to achieve greater female equality and the dissolution of zaibatsu were much less so? 5 What was the “reverse course”? What were changes constituted the “new departures”? What was the logic behind scaling back many of the reforms? Cumings, “Japan’s Position in the World System” 1. How did the Cold War shape the U.S.-Japan relationship in terms of their economic and security relations? 2. In Dean Acheson’s containment strategy, what was Japan’s role? Why was Japan’s role considered critical to the success of the strategy? 3. How did the Cold War shape the U.S.-Japan relationship in terms of their economic and security relations, especially given the loss of Northeast China to the communists?

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