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Robert E. Lee sent Stonewall Jackson to attack Pope’s rear, made Pope attack Jackson with full force, then rest of Confederate force attack flanks of Pope’s armyoPope retreated to Washington, and stripped of command, replaced by McClellan•Lee invaded Maryland, but McClellan caught him at SharpsburgoAntietam- September 17th, 5,000 men killed on 2 sides and 18,000 woundedoLee retreated to south of Potomac R., McClellan slow in pursuit, Lincoln blamed McClellan for allowing enemy to run away•McClellan replaced by more aggressive General Ambrose E. Burnside (also very dense)oBurnside’s limitations shown at Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862, when he launched a direct attack on an elevated and entrenched area•Union forces lost twice as many men as Confederates, ended year of failure on eastern front for NorthThe Diplomatic Struggle•From 1861-1862, critical diplomatic timeoSouth trying to get Euro powers to recognize their independenceoSouth got “belligerent” statusPermitted South to purchase and outfit privateers in neutral ports•Confederate raiders built in British shipyards, the Alabama, sank 62 northern shipping vessels, so devastating that insurance costs made most U.S. merchants off the seas for the waroFall, 1861- Confederate govt. sent James M. Mason and John Slidell as
AP U.S. History: Chapter 15 OutlineArthur DingAP U.S. HistoryPer. 1permanent envoys to England and France, respectivelyWanted full recognition of ConfederacyMason and Slidell’s ship captured and both men taken into custody by Union captain•Almost caused war between U.S. and Britain•Britain threatened war if Confederate men were not released by Union•After weeks, Lincoln decided to let the men go to their destinationsBoth Mason and Slidell failed to get full recognition•Cotton shortage in Europe slow to take effect, bumper crop of 1860 caused surplus to be usedoFrench - Napoleon III trying to set up puppet empire in Mexico, wanted to support Southern cause only if Britain would also mediate Civil WaroBritish – official and public opinion both dividedGovt. sympathetic to South but wary of war with UnionBritain would only intervene if South won decisive victories on battlefieldoCotton famine hit in 1862, massive amount of unemployment in British textile industry, but public opinion didn’t force govt. to abandon neutralityBritish working class – no right to vote, therefore no policy-making powerBy 1863, cotton from India and Egypt put British industry back on trackoBritish economy actually gained more than it lost in neutral stanceoEarly 1863, Confederacy broke off relations with BritainConfederacy needed decisive victory to get European help, but with decisive victory, they wouldn’t need help in the first placeFight to the Finish•Radical war measures appeared in last 2.5 years of fightingoLincoln freed the slaves, brought black population onto Union’s side of waroTide of battle turned in summer, 1863, but South held on for 2 more years