occurs 12 months after a womans last menstrual period average is 51 years of

Occurs 12 months after a womans last menstrual period

This preview shows page 25 - 27 out of 27 pages.

occurs 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period; average is 51 years of age o Postmenopause " time after menopause ! Signs and symptoms of menopause o Irregular periods, night sweats, sleep disturbances, vaginal dryness, mood changes/trouble focusing, decreased interest in sex, fatigue, hair loss, incontinence, irregular heartbeat/palpitations o Hot flashes are caused by vasomotor response to changes in the hormonal levels; triggers blood vessels near the surface of the skin to dilate, causing an increase in blood supply ! Treating menopausal symptoms o Lifestyle changes " get 8 hours of sleep/night, balanced diet, exercise, avoid caffeine/alcohol/cigarettes/secondhand o Alternative medicine " herbal supplements, acupuncture, biofeedback, hypnosis o Menopausal hormone therapy # Estrogen " women who DO NOT have uterus # Estrogen + progesterone " women who HAVE uterus ! Treating menopausal discomforts o Hot flashes " avoid alcohol, hot beverages, spicy foods, warm rooms, smoking; dress in layers, avoid wearing clothing made out of wool or synthetics; use of fans o Night sweats " sleep in cotton nightwear; use cotton bed linens; sleep in cool room; sleep with fan blowing over body; take a cool shower before bedtime o Sleep disturbances " keep bedroom dark, quiet, cool; establish regular bedtime ! Vaginal dryness " use water-based lubricants during sexual intercourse ! Osteoporosis is the loss of bone mass that occurs when more bone mass is absorbed than new body mass is laid down o Usually occurs after age 35; 80% of all Americans diagnosed are women o Greater risk for vertebral and hip fractures o Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan (DXA) # T score is determined by comparing the woman’s bone density to that of average peak density of same sex and race # Score of -2.5 or below indicative of osteoporosis # Score of -1 to -2.5 is indicative of osteopenia ! bone density between normal and osteoporosis o Signs and symptoms # Back pain related to fracture or collapsed vertebra # Loss of height related to collapsed vertebra # Stopped posture related to collapsed vertebra # Bone fractures related to bone weakness o Risk factors
Image of page 25
26 # Caucasian women; thin, small-boned women; family history of osteoporosis; history of smoking; inactivity; low levels of calcium and vitamin D; excessive alcohol consumption; decreased levels of energy; long-term use of steroids; eating disorders (anorexia); weight loss surgery o Risk reductions # Diet high in calcium and vitamin D (helps with absorption of dietary calcium) # Weight-bearing exercise, avoid smoking, limit alcohol use o EXCLUDE PHARMACOTHERAPY Chapter 19 Alterations in Women’s Health ! Hysterectomy " surgical removal of the uterus (2 nd most frequently performed surgery in the U.S.) ! top reasons for hysterectomy o leiomyomas " benign fibrous tumor of the uterine wall o endometriosis " abnormal growth of tissue resembling the endometrium that is present outside of the uterine cavity o uterine prolapse ! risks related to hysterectomy o
Image of page 26
Image of page 27

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture