GSIS
International Terrorism Paper by Will Kang.docx

His erratic behavior affected the bureaucracy such

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behavior was erratic. His erratic behavior affected the bureaucracy, such that it became paralyzed as “government administrators feared to make what might prove to be a wrong decision.” 16 According to Martin, every state wants to legitimize its authority and how that is done differs with the “degrees of restraint”. 17 There are four examples of state domestic authority, such as democracy, authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and crazy states; the one that Uganda constitutes is under the crazy states. Crazy states are comprised of irrational behavior, such that the population will live at the mercy of state. Also crazy states are controlled by warlords or militia because the central authority is either weak or 12 Ian Westall, op.cit . 13 Ted Robert Gurr, op. cit . p. 48 14 Ian Westall, op.cit . 15 Lt Col Richard J. Erickson, Legitimate Use of Military Force Against State-Sponsored International Terrorism , (Alabama: Air University Press, 1989), p. 26. 16 Library of Congress Country Studies, op. cit. 17 Gus Martin, op. cit., p. 73
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absent. And crazy states have “capricious, impulsive, and violent regimes in power that act out with impunity”. 18 The root causes of violence By establishing that Uganda’s domestic authority is under ‘crazy state,’ it is important to ask what the root causes of violence are that were perpetrated by Amin? In order to answer that question, it is important first to examine the power base of Amin to see how the root causes developed. When Idi Amin secured his power over Uganda, he was in a situation where he couldn’t depend only on his Kakwa ethnic tribe to help him stay in power. The Kakwa ethnic tribe was a very small minority and Amin needed a strategy to expand his support group. The solution was to create the “Nubi” identity, which was both “inclusive and expansive enough to absorb new groups”. 19 In order for the Kakwa and Nubi group to stay loyal to Amin, he had to evict over 50,000 Asians that had businesses; by that decree Amin was able to provide stolen businesses to his loyal group of supporters. 20 Some people even think that the expulsion of 50,000 Asians, who provided economic strength in an already dwindling Ugandan economy, was irrational. However one of the root causes for the Asian expulsion was that it was a “calculated piece of populism, channeling the stored-up resentment of Ugandans at a time when his position was precarious.” 21 Previously mentioned, Amin purged the pro- Obote Acholi and Langi ethnic troops because of their political opposition to his rule; which constitutes one of the root causes of violence by Amin. The perceived threat of Obote counterattacking was a “near-obsession” for Amin, where he launched an attempt to go across the Tanzanian border. 22 The following are also root causes of violence. The political purge decreased the size of Amin’s army ‘power base’ to only Nubi, Kakwa Muslims, and recruited mercenary from South Sudan. 23 This in turn made his former allies from West Nile his enemies; these people are the Muslim Lugbara, Madi, Alur, and other ethnic groups, thus he 18 Ibid .
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  • Spring '13
  • Yoweri Museveni, Milton Obote, President of Uganda, Major General Idi Amin

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