B constitution were the colonies occupied by

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B. Constitution : Were the colonies occupied by altiplano people, local people, or both, and was occupation permanent, occasional, or seasonal? C. Social and political structure : What sort of class/status/control structure was there within 4
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the colonies, and how did it relate to local versus altiplano ethnicity? Were colonists primarily producers with little stratification, a mix of producers and administrators, or administrators controlling production by, or products of, non-colonists? D. Relations with Tiwanaku : Did the colonies receive altiplano subsistence goods, status/wealth goods, or logistical support such as camelids? Did they depend on these altiplano goods? Were the various colonies organized as a single hierarchical or parallel system, or were they independent, perhaps outposts of different altiplano groups in the sense of Murra's "multi-ethnic" colonization? Field methods The field crew will consist of Bruce Owen, one or two other North American graduate students yet to be determined, including one specializing in human osteological remains, one or two Peruvian archaeology students also not yet determined, and several local laborers hired as needed. Because the season is long, the membership of the crew may vary. Bruce Owen will supervise work for the entire season. The crew will be divided into three teams that will survey and excavate separate areas concurrently. An application for a permit to carry out this research has been approved by the Peruvian Instituto Nacional de Cultura and lacks only the presidential signature, so the permit should be issued well before fieldwork is scheduled to begin. A brief surface survey of the lower valley from the coast to 17 kilometers inland, where the dry section of the valley begins, will help to sketch in the settlement pattern, population size, and scale of organization prior to and during the period of Tiwanaku intrusion. The major sites are known, but a systematic survey is needed to check for ephemeral pre-Tiwanaku sites and Tiwanaku-contemporary local settlement. Sites will be dated by surface ceramics, and by radiocarbon dates from eroding occupation deposits where necessary. Prehistoric canals and field systems will be recorded in order to estimate the potential production capacity of the lower valley. This pedestrian survey, recorded on air photographs in the field, will cover both margins of the narrow valley; the valley bottom has been completely disturbed by farming. Spot checks of higher slopes and ridgetops will indicate whether the survey should be extended to these areas. Sites discovered during the survey will be mapped sufficiently to estimate their area, population, and major architectural features. Attention will then shift to El Algodonal. The site will be mapped in order to distinguish residential, public, and other areas, and to define natural collection and excavation units. An electronic distance meter (EDM) may be available through the Programa Contisuyu, which would allow rapid and accurate mapping. Otherwise, a plane table and alidade will be used.
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  • Fall '02
  • BruceOwen
  • Radiocarbon dating, Tiwanaku, tiwanaku colonies, tiwanaku expansion

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