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The majority of research on resident perceptions of

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The majority of research on resident perceptions of major sports events has employedcross-sectional research methods. Cross-sectional research establishes the level of nationalby guest on November 23, 2014irs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Leng et al.753pride at a single point in time. In comparison, longitudinal research allows the examina-tion of change in national pride over time, particularly since residents’ perceptions changeas the hosting of the sports event gets underway. However, such research usually posesmany challenges for researchers. Longitudinal research requires higher levels of co-ordination and resources, including both time and cost. As such, there are fewer of suchlongitudinal studies (Dowse, 2012; Guala and Turco, 2009; Ritchie et al., 2009).A total of 679 (41.1%) respondents completed the second survey, which was alsoadministered electronically during the period from 19 to 30 October 2010. This responserate is comparable to the response rate of 39.0% from an earlier study employing thelongitudinal method (Waitt, 2003). All responses were usable for further analysis.In addition to the General National Pride scale, this second survey included a sportsinvolvement scale. For the purpose of this study, the sports involvement scale wasadapted from the three-item domain involvement scale used in earlier studies (Fisher andWakefield, 1998; Gwinner and Swanson, 2003). The scale measures the individual’sinvolvement with sports and refers to the field of sports as a domain rather than an inter-est in specific sports or groups. It is designed to reflect the degree to which sports as adomain is personally relevant to the individual. The items used in the sports involvementscale are as follows:a. Sports is very important to me;b. I think about sports all the time; andc. I watch sports whenever I can.Data analysis was conducted using PASW Statistics 18.0 software. The reliability ofeach scale was analysed using Cronbach’s alpha. Descriptive statistics were compiled forthe demographics of the participants and mean scores of national pride. A paired samplest-test was employed to examine the impact of the YOG on national pride.It is worth noting that the large sample size used in the testing will make a small dif-ference between groups become statistically significant, even when the effect has nopractical or theoretical meaning (Field, 2009; Pallant, 2010). Reporting effect size willallow for a judgment to be made on the magnitude of the differences present betweengroups, comparison of research results across studies and a judgment on the practicalsignificance of the results (Kotrlik and Williams, 2003). Hence, effect sizes were alsocalculated to measure the magnitude, practicality and/or meaningfulness of the change innational pride scores. In this study, Cohen’sdwas used as the measure of effect size.

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Term
Spring
Professor
N/A
Tags
Olympic Games, Youth Olympic Games, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Ho Keat Leng

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