Behavior that looks clever shaping through successive

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behavior that looks clever Shaping through successive approximation – series of rewards that provide positive reinforcement for behavior changes that are successive steps toward a final desired behavior o Successive approximation – approximate behavior you get is getting closer to final behavior you want You shape by rewarding intermediary steps that lead to the complex sequence you want Reinforcement – outcome that increases frequency or likelihood of behavior occurring o Punishment – reduces an unwanted behavior, outcome that decreases frequency of a behavior occurring o Children are particularly sensitive to rewards and relatively insensitive to punishment o Much more effective to reward and praise behaviors that you want rather than punish unwanted behavior Negative reinforcement – increasing the frequency of a behavior by taking something aversive/negative o Take away something aversive or negative to increase likelihood of a behavior Lecture 11 – Early Development Psychology in the News – Fear of Heights Fear is something that develops over time – baby or toddler won’t express same level of fear of heights as an adult Visual cliff – method for psychologists to study fear of heights o Table where half of the table is clear glass – watch to see if baby will go onto clear part that looks like a cliff
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Study got infants that couldn’t crawl yet and gave them cart device that allowed them to crawl and move o Discovered that when they let babies crawl w/ cart, they developed fear of heights earlier o Ability to interact and locomote in the world drives the fear of height along w/ cognitive architecture Moving around makes it adaptive to develop fear of heights – very adaptive emotion Basics of Infancy and Childhood Newborns are born w/ a few reflexes that are very basic – babies can breathe and swallow o If you rub against baby’s cheek, he’ll turn his head and root around looking for something to eat Evolutionary psychology pointed out that human brains are bigger relative to the size of their bodies o Humans are more adaptive learners – capable of adapting to multiple environments & solve novel problems o One theory for our long development – it takes that long for us to develop a brain that is complex & flexible Humans do not gestate for longer than 9 months because of evolution When humans evolved to stand upright, pelvises became smaller as a species Our head cannot be very big in order to be born and go through birth canal One theory is that babies are actually born too early – they are born when their heads area as big as they can possible be to fit through birth canal o Many parenting guides consider the first few months of a baby’s life as fourth trimester o Baby doesn’t really do anything but sleep and eat in the first few months of life – very helpless state Mothers are motivated to stay as close as possible to their baby because of
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