o reduced blood clotting, excessive bleeding o occurs in diseases that limit absorption of fat in the small intestines no side effects of large quantities Phosphorous functions o critical to mineral composition of bone health o required for proper fluid balance recommended intake o RDA is 700 mg/day Sources o High protein o In processed food as a food additive o In soft drinks as phosphoric acid
What if you consume too much phosphorus? o Kidney disease, excessive vitamin D supplements of consumption of to many phosphorus containing antacids can cause elevated phosphorous levels, muscle spasms, and convulsions Deficiencies are rare in healthy adults Magnesium Functions o Bone structures- contain 50-60% of body’s magnesium o Cofactor for over 300 enzymes systems o Required for the production of ATP o Plays an important role in DNA and protein synthesis and repair Recommended intake o RDA varies based on age and gender 310 mg/day woman 19-30 400 mg/day men 19-30 sources o green leafy vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, seafood, beans, some diary products no toxicity from magnesium in food o but magnesium supplements can cause diarrhea, nausea, cramps, dehydration, and cardiac arrest hypomagnemia can result Fluoride functions o development and maitmance of teeth and bones – 99% of body’s fluoride stored here o combines with calcium and phosphorus to make tooth enamel stronger, protects teeth recommended intake o RDA woman 3 mg/day o Men 4 mg/day Sources o Fluoride dental products o Fluoride water What if you consume too much o Fluorosis – creates porous tooth enamel, teeth become sainted and pitted What if we don’t consume enough o Detain cavities Osteoporosis Characterized by o Low bone mass o Deterioration of bone tissue
o Fragile bones, leading to bone fractures o Compaction of bone; decreased height o Shortening and hunching of the spine There is no cure for osteoporosis The progression of osteoporosis may be slowed by o Adequate calcium Cardiovascular disease Dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels The most common forms o Coronary heart disease Blood vessels supplying the heart become constricted or blocked- atherosclerosis o Stroke Blood vessel supplying the brain becomes blocked o Hypertension Forced blood flowing through arteries is above normal o Peripheral vascular disease Blood flow to other parts of body becomes constricted Atherosclerosis is a disease in which artery walls build up lipid deposits and scar tissue, impairing blood flow o The result is that the heart must work harder to push blood through the vessels Leading cause of heart attacks/strokes The stiffness that results is commonly called hardening of the arteries Hypertension is a major chronic disease in the US It functions as a warning sign for a person’s risk for developing heart disease or stroke
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- Fall '16