Passive Transport - Transport in the cell when energy is not used. Includes Diffusion, Osmosis, and Facilitates Diffusion. Active Transport - Transport where the cell does need to use energy. Includes Proteins pumps, Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Diffusion - The movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. It is important in maintaining metabolic requirements and excretion of wastes. Osmosis - The diffusion of water. Salinity - the relative proportion of solute in a solution Hypertonic conditions - Molecules go from inside the cell, to the outside of the cell. Isotonic - Molecules are equal, and don't diffuse in or out of the cell. Hypotonic - Molecules go from outside of the cell to the inside of the cell. Facilitated Diffusion - Diffusion with the help of transport proteins. Happens when "bigger" molecules than usual need to pass through the membrane. Channel Proteins - The proteins used in facilitated diffusion to assist molecules.
Contractual Vacuoles - organelles the pump excess water out of cells. Typically found in organisms that are found in the ocean. Tugor Pressure - the amount of pressure when water molecules are pressing on the cell wall of a plant cell. Plasmolysis - When there is a reduced tugor pressure because, due to osmosis, there isn't that much water present in the cell. Cell Membrane pumps - transport proteins powered from ATP in active transport. Endocytosis - Taking "swallowing" a bulky material into a cell. (active) Exocytosis - Forces a bulk amount of material out of a cell. (active)