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Diseased individuals 2 the organism can be isolated

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diseased individuals. 2. The organism can be isolated from a diseased individual and grown in pure culture 3. The pure culture will initiate and reproduce the disease when introduced back into a susceptible host (either man or animal) 4. The organism can be reisolated from that diseased individual.
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12 Problems with Koch’s postulates 1. Not all microbes can be cultured in vitro 2. Some pathogens only cause disease in humans 3. Asymptomatic carriers Molecular Koch's postulates = a gene from a pathogenic microorganism is associated with the disease
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13 Story of Helicobacter pylori Strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Barry Marshall (physician) and Robin Warren (pathologist) To demonstrate that H. pylori caused gastritis, Marshall drank a beaker of H. pylori. He became ill several days later with nausea and vomiting. An endoscopy ten days after inoculation revealed signs of gastritis and the presence of H. pylori. These results proved that H. pylori was the causative agent of gastritis. Warren and Marshall were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2005
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14 Typhoid fever/Typhoid Causative agent = Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ingestion of contaminated food or water (oral-fecal route) Symptoms: Sustained fever as high as 40°C (104°F), profuse sweating, gastroenteritis, and non-bloody diarrhea. Typhoid Mary (Asymptomatic carriers)
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15 Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary Was the first person in the United States to be identified as a healthy carrier of typhoid fever . Over the course of her career as a cook, she infected 53 people, three of whom died from the disease. Her notoriety is in part due to her vehement denial of her own role in spreading the disease, together with her refusal to cease working as a cook. She was forcibly quarantined twice by public health authorities and died in quarantine. It is possible that she was born with the disease, as her mother had typhoid fever during her pregnancy.
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16 Important points in the study of Infectious Diseases • Reservoir = source of infection • Carrier / asymptomatic carrier • Route of transmission • Route of entry
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