It should be emphasized that a gis application does

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It should be emphasized that a GIS application does not aim to predict specific events and their offenders in a certain time. It is very difficult to predict certain time, point, and event to occur, but the applications can help to identify the most likely areas where they may occur and which crimes may occur in a jurisdiction. Regarding this issue, Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) is a good example that can be created in GIS. RTM is a method of representing risk assessment which was developed by the Rutgers University School of Criminal Justice (Caplan, 2014). RTM provides an approach to analysts that helps them to identify risk terrains which represent actionable meaning related to crime outcomes. This approach can help planners to predict where crimes are more likely to happen. The RTM process occurs in three steps; First, based on theoretical grounding, analysts use criminological theories which provides an overview of the social and environmental risk factors influencing crime patterns. In the second step, RTM use technical methods that employ ArcGIS software to represent risk terrains. In the final step, analysts present their ideas and forecasts to decision makers developing strategic and tactical decision making in the future (Caplan & Kennedy, 2010). In short, RTM provides meaningful and measurable information and interpretations that can address the most vulnerable areas in a jurisdiction for decision makers at all levels. Biometrics: Biometrics refers to technologies based on an individuals’ unique characteristics, such as their finger prints, their DNA make up, and their voice patterns (Custers, 2012). Biometrics has been used for many years in police forces and intelligence agencies around the world. Biometrics are used to identify the individual. In addition they are used to figure out who the suspects or criminals are who are responsible for
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European Scientific Journal April 2015 edition vol.11, No.10 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 292 committing a crime (For example finding the criminals who left their fingerprints on the gun) (FBI, 2014). Biometric technology is utilized in law enforcement for matching sensitive information by comparing this with different regional and national databases that have a superior authentication ability. Portable biometric identity management technologies also enable police forces to verify drivers’ licenses and mug shots over fingerprint readers. A fingerprint is one of the most important forms of biometrics that is utilized in law enforcement agencies around the world. Fingerprints vary depending and are unique to different persons and do not change over the time. Thus, fingerprint analysis is a very useful tool for law enforcement agencies in terms of identifying the suspect and providing useful evidence related to verifying the suspect of any crime. The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System used by FBI does not store fingerprints, but keeps a record of criminal histories such as mug shots, scars, and hair and eye color. That system has the fingerprints of 70 million suspects and 34 million civil prints in its database (FBI, 2014).
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