P. Theories outline

Thought to possess more of those traits another

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thought to possess more of those traits Another assumption is that human behavior and personality can be organized into a  hierarchy  Hans Eysenck suggested that at the simplest level, behavior can be considered in terms  of specific responses. However, some of these basic responses are linked together and  form more general habits. Groups of habits that tend to occur form traits. Finally, at the  highest level of organization, various traits may be linked together to form what Eysenck  call secondary, high-order factors or superfactors ( traits but at the highest more  abstract level of generalization)
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17:55 Gordon W. Allport Traits can be defined by three properties- frequency, intensity, and range of  situations Allport defined traits as “generalized and personalized determining tendencies –  consistent and stable modes of an individual’s adjustment to his environment” (1936,  p. 26) Thus traits are different from states and activities that describe those aspects of  personality that are temporary brief and caused by external circumstances Allport believed there were 3 different types of traits  Cardinal Traits  express a disposition that is so pervasive and outstanding in a  person’s life that virtually every act is traceable to its influence. Generally people  have few cardinal traits Central Traits  (honesty, kindness, assertiveness) express dispositions that cover a  more limited range of situations than cardinal traits Secondary Dispositions  are traits that are the least conspicuous, generalized, and  consistent, In other words, people carry traits with varying degrees of significance  and generality Allport recognized the importance of the situation in explaining why a person does  not behave the same way all the time He wrote, “traits are often aroused in one situation and not in another” Both trait and situation concepts are necessary to understand behavior Allport also analyzed motivational processes and he emphasized the functional  autonomy of human motives What Allport means by  functional autonomy,  that in adult life, motives become  independent of, or autonomous from, earlier tension-reducing drives Unlike other theorists, Allport primarily endorsed an idiographic approach to research Idiographic strategy focuses on the potentially unique individual Instead of doing studies on large numbers of individuals, Allport did in-depth studies  of individual persons as a path for learning about people generally
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17:55
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17:55 Factor Analysis Factor analysis is a statistical tool for summarizing the ways in which a larger 
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  • Fall '12
  • JamesRussell
  • Hans Eysenck, Raymond B. Cattell

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