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II.Social ControlA. Sanctions1.Negative- punishment for violating norms 2.Positive- rewards given for conforming to norms3.Formal- sanctions that are officially recognized and enforced4.Informal- sanctions that occur in face-to-face interactionsIII.Theoretical PerspectivesA. Functionalism1.Durkheim—deviance is functionalRobert K. Merton—Strain Theory- theory that addresses the relationship between having sociallyacceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals 2.Means GoalsConformity++Innovation-+Ritualism+-Retreatism--Rebellion-/+-/+3.Social Disorganization Theory: deviance occurs in communities with weak social ties and a lack of social control4.Shaw and McKay: Cultural deviance theory suggests that conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime. The theory of Shawand McKay has been further tested and expounded upon by Robert Sampson and Byron Groves (1989). They found that poverty, ethnic diversity, and family disruption in given localities had a strong positive correlation with social disorganization. They also determined that social disorganization was, in turn, associated with high rates of crime and delinquency—or devianceB.Conflict theory1.Karl Marx: Marx divided the general population into two rigid social groups: the proletariat and the bourgeois. The bourgeois are a small and wealthy segment of society who controls the means of production, while the proletariat is composed of the workers who rely on those means of production for employment and
survival. By centralizing these vital resources into few hands, the bourgeois also has the means to control the way society is regulated—from laws, to government, to other authority agencies—which gives the bourgeois the opportunity to maintain and expand their power in society. Though Marx spoke little of deviance, his ideas created the foundation for conflict theorists who study the intersection of deviance and crime with wealth and power.2.C. Wright Mills: The Power Elite: Mills described the existence of what he dubbed the power elite, a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources. Wealthy executives, politicians, celebrities, and military leaders often have access to national and international power, and in some cases, their decisions affect everyone in society. Because of this, the rules of society are stacked in favor of a privileged few who manipulate them to stay on top. It is these people who decide what is criminal and what is not, and the effects are often felt most by those who have little power. Mills’ theories explain why celebrities such as Chris Brown and Paris Hilton, or once-powerful politicians such as Eliot Spitzer and Tom DeLay, can commit crimes with little or no legal retribution.