ENR GBCA SK v US Final.doc

The ability to gain higher education was increased

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The ability to gain higher education was increased due to the programs implemented.. While South Korea has increased access to higher education, male students had a limited time frame to secure a spot at a college. Jung et al. states that “the college attendance rate dropped sharply for men who were 19 years in 1978 because those men did not have the opportunity to secure college entry because of the mandatory military service at age 21 years” (2015, p. 19). A younger man with the same skillset of an older man had more access to higher education as time progressed. It was believed in South Korea that not only does obtaining a college degree increase wages, but it also provides access to a higher social status for the graduate. Jung et al. gathered from their research that, “OLS estimates indicate that college attendance led to about 43.5 per cent higher monthly earnings and to about 45.4 percentage point higher probability of having a ‘prestigious’ white-collar job” (2015, p. 27). Men that were not able to gain access to college education may have the opportunity to earn higher wages in a white-collar job, which most require a college degree. The South Korean economy has benefited significantly as a result from programs that increased access to higher education. Culture and Economy. Culture can have an influence on the growth of an economy. In South Korea, the government has built a strong political influence while maintaining economic
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G B C A : S O U T H K O R E A V U N I T E D S T AT E S |ROY 18 growth within their cities. Haeran Shin and Quentin Stevens (2013) conducted a study that analyzes cultural economy in South Korea, basing the results of their study on the city of Gwanju. Throughout their study, the authors are able to identify the factors that develop a cultural economy, including civil society’s roles. Shin and Stevens state that “We put forward the notion of the politics of cultural economy as a way of making visible the conflict, integration, adaptation, and other dynamics that exist among participants who possess different agendas and interests” (Shin & Stevens, 2013, p. 10). However, civil society generally looks at the bigger picture of cultural society and the impacts that it has on the economy. Most refer to cultural economy for the reason of increasing prices of land and/or rent. “The conflicts between the culture side (civil society) and the economic side (bureaucrats) in Gwangju centre on the political struggles that have taken place in the city’s political history” (Shin & Stevens, 2013, p. 20). Trying to achieve sovereignty from the city government resulted hardships of cultural economy. Many citizens were asking for representatives and leadership to resolve disagreements civil society and bureaucrats.
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