As shown in figure 1, knowledge content is assessed in the first to the sec- ond stage of the cycle. In order to be understood (acquired) and used (ap- plication), knowledge is made contextual. A cycle arises because the third step will feed back into the first to update the knowledge content. (Dalkir 2011, 53 − 54.) The first stage of the KM cycle indicates the knowledge creation process, which has to be focus on in order to answer the research question. Knowledge capture is the identification and codification of existing internal knowledge (know-how) and external knowledge from the environment. Knowledge creation consist the development of new knowledge to produce innovation. In this manner, new knowledge is inventoried that did not have an existence in the company before. (Dalkir 2011, 53 − 54.) To produce the expected knowledge management benefits and to have a better coordination of these major activities that contribute to knowledge creation, a conceptual framework has to be provided to operate within. Therefore, two major frameworks will be introduced in chapter 4.2.
Managing Organizational Knowledge 8 3 TACIT KNOWLEDGE 3.1 Definition of Tacit Knowledge ” We know more than we can tell.” − Polanyi (1966) (Dalkir 2011, 9.) To understand the concept of tacit knowledge, it requires the understanding of the nature of knowledge. By trying to understand, the first question that arises in this context is: what is knowledge? Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) started with a more philosophical and tradi- tional definition, which interpret knowledge as “ justified true belief ” and “ a dynamic human process of justifying personal belief toward the truth ”. (No- naka & Takeuchi 1995, 58). Another consistent definition, which is still used is proposed by Davenport and Prusak (1998), who defined knowledge as “ a flux mix of framed expe- riences, values, contextual information, and expert insights that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and infor- mation. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organiza- tions, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms” (Daven- port & Prusak 1998, 5). In general, knowledge is categorized into two primary dimensions: tacit (implicit) and explicit knowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995, 8; Den Hertog & Huizenga 2000, 32 − 36; Young 2008, 4 − 5; Dalkir 2011, 9 − 11). Choo (1998) also discusses a third type of knowledge: cultural knowledge, which is not codified but diffused over relationships that connects a group. Alt- hough other authors such as Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) do not mention cultural knowledge, they however distinguish between individual and col- lective knowledge, which can be related to cultural knowledge. (Popadiuk & Choo, 2006, 307).
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