bacterial colonies provides an insight in the chaotic incipience of bioterror at a molecular level. 10On the distinction between bacteria and eukaryotic cellular and genetic structure see Margulis and Sagan (1986: 87-94). 11On this point, see B. L. Bassler (1999: 582-7). 12On the modification of bacterial colonies into eukaryotic or nucleic structures, see Margulis and Sagan (1986: 9-114). 13On the variety of bacterial sex, see Margulis and Sagan (1986: 89-90). 14The urban lifestyles of bacteria is characterized by all their metabolic technologies, which includes producing methane gas, deriving energy from globules of sulfur, precipitating iron and maganese while breathing, combusting hydrogen using oxygen to make water, growing in boiling water and salt brine, storing energy by use of purple pigment rhodopsin and so on. 'As a group bacteria obtain their food and energy recycling everything, using every sort of plant fiber and animal waste as a staring material.' (Margulis and Sagan, 1986:128). 15On the changing conception of the immune system from a self-self defence mechanism to immune network, see A. Goffey (2003). 16For further explanation, see R. M. Anderson, 'The pandemic of antibiotic resistance', Nature Medicine, 1999, 5(2): 147-149. 17On antibiotic resistance, see F. M. Painter, 'The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance'. Scientific American, March 1998. (Also available here.) 18On this point, see S. Graham, 'Superbug Gained Resistance from Neighboring Bacteria', Scientific American, 1 December 2003. See also A. Chernavsky, 'ASK THE EXPERTS: medicine', Scientific American, 18 July 1998. 19On this point, see Cohen M. L., 'Epidemiology of Drug Resistance: Implications for a Post-Antimicrobial Era', Science 1992, 257: 1050-55. 20As Thacker points out: 'Nanotechnology works towards the general capability for molecular engineering to structure matter atom by atom, a "new industrial revolution", a view of technology that is highly specific and combinatoric, down to the atomic scale. But, in this process, nanotechnology also perturbs the seemingly self-evident boundary between the living and the non-living (or
between organic and nonorganic matter) through its radical reductionism' (2004: 117). Nanotechnology aims to be able to control, engineer and design matter at the level of the nanometer – one billionth of a meter. See Eric Drexler (1986) and Drexler et al. (1991). 21As Thacker explains, nanomedicine, predicated on the notion of 'programmable matter', combines molecular biology and mechanical engineering. See Thacker (2000). 22For further insight on bacterial communication research see, M. Holloway (2004: 34-6). See also E Peter Greenberg, 'Tiny Teamwork'. Nature, Vol. 424, 10 July 2003, 134. References Anderson, R. M. (1999) 'The Pandemic of Antibiotic Resistance'. Nature Medicine 5(2): 147-49. Bassler, B. L. (1999) 'How Bacteria Talk To Each Other: Regulation of Gene Expression by Quorum Sensing'. Current Opinion in Microbiology, Vol. 2, No. 6, 1 December: 582-7.
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- Bacteria, bacterial colonies, bacterial communication