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given sample of individuals and then track what results that change yields; often involve comparisons to a control group that did not experience such an intervention (ex: Music lab and the way # of downloads influenced whether people were going to download that same track or not)Content analysis – a systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as written work, speech, or filmoManifest content – what we can observeoLatent content – what is implied but not stated outrightETHICS OF SOCIAL RESARCHEthical guidelines by the American Sociological AssociationA few golden rules in researcho“do no harm” (physical, psychological, emotional)oinformed consent (a right for participants to know they are in a study and what the study is aboutovoluntary participation (can choose if they want to participate, stop participating at any point, not answer questions)also protected populations (minors, pregnant women, etc) often with additional approval to studyPOLICY: SOCIAL SCIENCE & PUBLIC POLICYpublic sociology – the practice of sociological research, teaching, and service that seeks to engage a wide audience for a normative, productive end (aka social research whose aims include sharing its findings with a wider audience in order to influence society instead of just studying it)
CH 3: CULTURE AND MEDIADefinitions of CultureCulture = Human – NatureoCulture – a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum total of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, behaviors (except instinctual ones), and practices; that which is not the natural environment around us (pretty much everything but nature)Derives from Latin “colere” – to cultivate or tillCulture = (Superior) Man – (Inferior) ManoEthnocentrism – the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s won (ex: Westerners believed non-Westerners didn’t have souls and weren’t human justifying racism and slavery during colonialism)Culture = Man – MachineoMatthew Arnold redefined culture as the pursuit of out perfection and broad knowledge of the world in contrast to narrow self-centeredness and material gainMaterial vs Nonmaterial CultureNonmaterial culture – values, beliefs, behaviors, and social normsMaterial culture – everything that is part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology
Language, Meaning, and ConceptsoWhat feels normal to us but is actually socially produced (ex: saying bless you when someone sneezes)oA way of organizing our experience (ex: What does a red light means?)oIncludes language (Sapir Whorf thesis: the language we speak directly influences and reflects the way we think about and experience the world)Ideology - a system of concepts and relationships, and understanding of cause and effecto